Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 350 m (Ref. 9283). Subtropical; 33°N - 7°S, 119°W - 76°W
Eastern Pacific: San Diego, California, USA to Peru, including the Gulf of California and the Galapagos Islands. Probably the same species as Caranx hippos in the Atlantic.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 101 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9283); max. published weight: 17.7 kg (Ref. 40637)
Body deep, elongated and slightly compressed; eye with an adipose eyelid; posterior edge of lower jaw behind posterior edge of eye; chest mostly scaleless, just a small patch in front of pectoral fins; 35 to 42 strong scutes; back of body blue to blue black; belly white, silvery, or yellow; pectoral fins and operculum each with a black spot (Ref. 55763).
Adults occur in oceanic and coastal waters, commonly found in shallow water, with larger individuals up to 350 m depth (Ref. 9283). Also found in brackish water and occasionally ascend rivers (Ref. 9283). They form medium-sized to big schools, but large adults may be solitary (Ref. 9283). They feed mainly on fishes, but also takes shrimps and other invertebrates (Ref. 9283). Often makes a grunting sound when captured (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are often found in river estuaries (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh, frozen, smoked and salted or dried; also utilized as fishmeal and a source of oil (Ref. 9283).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.9 - 21.7, mean 15.7 °C (based on 68 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.01028 - 0.02558), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.8 [15.5, 90.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.954 [0.447, 2.191] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.0, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.789 [0.347, 1.791] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.2 [11.1, 91.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.3 [3.1, 32.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.627 [0.370, 1.106] mg/100g (wet weight);