Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.
More on authors: Alleyne & Macleay.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 35 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 3°S - 23°S
Western Pacific: southern Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. There has been considerable confusion in the use of names for this species. In recent literature it is referred to as Lethrinus fraenatus (a junior synonym of Lethrinus nebulosus) or Lethrinus fletus (a junior synonym of Lethrinus laticaudis).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 8. Cheek without scales; the inner base of pectoral fins densely covered with scales. Body is tan, brown or yellow with scattered irregular blotches; head brown or yellow with blue dots on cheeks and short blue stripes radiating in front and behind the eye, sometimes a number of blue cross stripes between the eyes; fines pale or yellow, the vertical fins are mottled.
Juveniles found in seagrass beds and mangrove swamps. Adults found over coral reefs. Often in schools (Ref. 9710). Feeds mainly on crustaceans and fishes. Considered a good food fish. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 28.8, mean 27.7 °C (based on 242 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00693 - 0.03157), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44.3 [21.2, 83.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.07 [0.60, 2.12] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [16.8, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.305 [0.151, 0.659] g/100g ; Selenium = 43.2 [16.4, 98.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 62.6 [14.1, 406.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.13 [1.33, 3.41] mg/100g (wet weight);