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Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato, 1978

Spotcheek emperor
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Lethrinus rubrioperculatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Lethrinus rubrioperculatus (Spotcheek emperor)
Lethrinus rubrioperculatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 198 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 38°N - 31°S, 30°E - 139°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to south Korea in the Yellow Sea, and the Marquesas Islands.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 23.0, range 20 - 26 cm
Max length : 57.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 125599); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 125599)

Short description Identification keys | Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately elongate, its depth 3-3.4 times in standard length; head length 1.1-1.3 times in body depth, 2.6-3 times in SL, dorsal profile near eye convex without a distinct hump; snout length 1.8-2.1 times in HL, measured without the lip the snout is 0.7-0.9 times in cheek height, its dorsal profile nearly straight or slightly concave, snout angle relative to upper jaw between 54° and 65°; interorbital space flat or slightly convex; posterior nostril a longitudinal oblong opening, closer to orbit than anterior nostril; eye situated close or slightly removed from dorsal profile, its length 3.9-4.7 times in HL; cheek height 2.4-3.3 times in HL; lateral teeth in jaws conical; outer surface of maxilla smooth or with a longitudinal ridge; D X,9 with the 3rd dorsal-fin spine the longest, its length 2.4-2.7 times in body depth; A III,8 with the first soft ray usually the longest, its length shorter than length of base of soft-rayed portion of anal fin and 1.4-1.8 times in length of entire anal-fin base; pectoral-fin rays 13; pelvic-fin membranes between rays closest to body without dense melanophores; cheek without scales; 47-49 lateral-line scales; 4 ½ scale rows between lateral line and base of middle dorsal-fin spines; 15-16 scale rows in transverse series between origin of anal fin and lateral line; usually 15 rows in lower series of scales around caudal peduncle; 7-10 scales in supratemporal patch; inner surface of pectoral-fin base without scales; posterior angle of operculum with a wide scaleless area. Colour of body olive grey or brown, with scattered irregular small black blotches; lips and a spot on upper edge of operculum usually red; fins pale or pinkish (Ref. 114226).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over sand and rubble areas of outer reef slopes (Ref. 30573). Feeds mainly on crustaceans, fish, echinoderms and mollusks (Ref. 30573). In New Caledonia, spawning peaks are observed in December and a fairly high percentage of gonads in advanced stages of maturity occurs between October and February (Ref. 9775). Caught mostly by handline, trap, and trawl. Marketed mostly fresh. An excellent food fish (Ref. 114226).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduction | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larvae

Oviparous (Ref. 205). Also Ref. 103751.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2015


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Trophic ecology
Food items
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Population dynamics
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Mass conversions
Life cycle
Spawning aggregations
Egg developments
Larval dynamics
FAO areas
BRUVS - Videos
Gill areas
Body compositions
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Fish sounds
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Human related
Aquaculture systems
Aquaculture profiles
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 22.4 - 28.3, mean 26.9 °C (based on 844 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01230 - 0.01698), b=2.97 (2.93 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 41.7 [28.6, 61.1] mg/100g; Iron = 0.847 [0.566, 1.224] mg/100g; Protein = 20.2 [17.6, 22.4] %; Omega3 = 0.151 [0.108, 0.210] g/100g; Selenium = 55.5 [35.5, 88.8] μg/100g; VitaminA = 26.9 [5.9, 138.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.91 [1.47, 2.46] mg/100g (wet weight);