Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Synapturichthys: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, aptein = to join + Greek, oura = tail + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 460 m (Ref. 5304). Subtropical; 44°N - 32°S
Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: Mediterranean south to Durban, South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3200); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms; mainly in shallow water (Ref. 3200).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13 - 24.2, mean 15.9 °C (based on 348 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00652 - 0.01607), b=2.98 (2.85 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 133 [56, 322] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.63 [0.84, 3.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.8, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.454 [0.193, 1.037] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.4 [14.0, 72.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.9 [2.8, 36.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.07 [0.66, 1.80] mg/100g (wet weight);