Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Diplodus: Greek, diploos = twice + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 160 m, usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 13780). Subtropical; 50°N - 40°S, 26°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Cape Verde and the Canary Islands including the Mediterranean and Black Sea (off Bulgaria); also from Angola to South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
A euryhaline species inhabiting rocky and sometimes sandy bottoms to depths of 160 m, but more commonly in less than 50 m. The young are sometimes found in seagrass beds. Adults feed on crustaceans, worms and mollusks (Ref. 3688). Important food fish.
Potentially hermaphroditic (Ref. 4781).
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 15.9 - 21.6, mean 18.8 °C (based on 248 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.01097 - 0.01380), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.3 (2.8 - 4.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26-0.4; tmax=6; tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 55.8 [30.4, 111.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.793 [0.332, 1.505] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.4, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.314 [0.180, 0.559] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.8 [10.6, 46.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 33.5 [9.7, 109.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.894 [0.553, 1.366] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.