Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Diplodus: Greek, diploos = twice + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 12460), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 13780). Subtropical; 48°N - 36°S, 18°W - 42°E
Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Black Sea; eastern Atlantic from Canary Islands and Madeira north to Brittany (France); Angola.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 1.9 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 26328)
Inhabits coastal rocky reef areas (Ref. 12460) and Posidonia oceanica beds. Like other sparids, it is very active and frequents the surf zone, primarily at dawn (Ref. 13780). Feeds on shellfish and other benthic invertebrates which it picks from the sediment (Ref. 5377).
Sexes separate or protandrous (Ref. 4781). In some areas, this species occurs as a digynic hermaphrodite, that is, males and females developing from intermediate juveniles (Ref. 52202). However, protandry with possible digyny was later confirmed (Ref. 103751). Reaches sexual maturity at 2 years, with an approximate size of 17 cm. Spawning happens from January to March. Egg size 0.8-0.9 mm; larval length at hatching 2.6 mm. Also Ref. 28504.
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15 - 24.1, mean 18.8 °C (based on 400 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.01071 - 0.01350), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.25; tmax=10; tm=2).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.82, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 83.7 [40.2, 180.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.23 [0.67, 2.31] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.4, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.662 [0.312, 1.452] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.5 [11.1, 56.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.5 [6.2, 77.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.03 [0.60, 1.66] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.