Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 27 m (Ref. 26268). Tropical; 27°N - 10°N, 89°W - 60°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Central Atlantic: Widespread through insular regions of the Caribbean Sea, including Glover's Reef, St. Eustatius, St. Barthelemy, and the French West Indies. Rarely captured along the continental margins of the Caribbean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 3 - ? cm
Max length : 4.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 53028); 5.7 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 61 - 62. Slender, small; pale with distinct, dark ocellated spots near rear of dorsal and anal fins.
Inhabits sandy substrates, also those submerged beds of aquatic vegetation, in clear shallow waters near coral reefs. Little is known of its biology since its captured infrequently and generally in small numbers; most captures were a single fish (Ref. 26268).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Böhlke, J.E. and C.C.G. Chaplin, 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin. (Ref. 5521)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.6 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 290 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00592 - 0.02556), b=3.06 (2.87 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .