Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Anodontostoma: Greek, ana = up + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 50 m (Ref. 188), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 23°S, 47°E - 171°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to coasts of India and Andaman Sea, to Gulf of Thailand, Indonesia, Viet Nam, and Philippines, south to northern Australia, the Caroline Islands and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54980); common length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3107)
soft rays: 17 - 25. Body depth increasing with size of fish, 40 to 70 % standard length in fishes over 10 cm. Second supra-maxilla a mere splint. Longest gill rakers on lower part of arch less than corresponding gill filaments. Hind edges of scales toothed, the teeth thinner than the gaps between them; a median series of pre-dorsal scales. A large black spot behind gill opening.
Pelagic inshore (Ref. 68964). Usually marine coastal, but ascends rivers to the upper tidal zone (Ref. 12693). Occurs inshore and also in estuaries. Feeds on diatoms, radiolarians, mollusks, copepods, and crustaceans (in that order of importance, at least in the Godavari estuary). Breeds from November to February, mainly in the later part (Godavari estuary). Marketed fresh, frozen, dried, dried-salted or boiled. Made into fish balls.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00810 - 0.01075), b=3.04 (3.00 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.28 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.9-1.3).
Prior r = 1.19, 95% CL = 0.79 - 1.79, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 357 [198, 636] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.5 [1.4, 4.2] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [17.2, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.889 [0.411, 1.947] g/100g ; Selenium = 51.9 [24.0, 111.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.1 [3.7, 25.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.17 [1.48, 3.16] mg/100g (wet weight);