Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 100 - 1600 m (Ref. 9925). Deep-water; 73°N - 10°N, 81°W - 2°W
Atlantic Ocean: east coast of North America, and from North Atlantic (Iceland and northern Scotland) south to northwest Africa (off Mauritania) (Ref. 6940).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94423); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 94423)
Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on small benthic invertebrates (Ref. 6696).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G. and E. Bertelsen, 1992. Fisk i grønlandske farvande. Atuakkiorfik, Nuuk. 65 s. (Ref. 9925)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.5 - 12.8, mean 6.4 °C (based on 656 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .