Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Atherinomorinae
Etymology: Hypoatherina: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane; 1770 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Whitley.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. 9760), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Pacific: New Guinea, northern and eastern Australia, Madang, Maron and Bougainville Islands. Possibly present over a wide range in Melanesian waters. Aso found around Lord Howe Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9760)
(total): 6 - 9;
soft rays: 11 - 14. Lips absent. Ascending process of premaxilla, short and broad. Gill rakers in first lower gill arch 18-22. Midlateral scales 39-46. Predorsal scales 17-22.
Inhabits waters close inshore. Often seen to jump out of the water, especially after sunset when they appear as fluorescent streaks. At night they appear to aggregate with Atherinomorus capricornensis around One Tree Island (eastern Australia). Probably eaten by larger commercial species (Ref. 9760).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Ivantsoff, W. and L.E.L.M. Crowley, 1999. Atherinidae. Silversides (or hardyheads). p. 2113-2139. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9760)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 1430 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00244 - 0.01296), b=3.11 (2.91 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .