Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 132 m (Ref. 57178). Tropical; 30°N - 36°S, 32°E - 155°E (Ref. 56999)
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf eastward to southern China and Taiwan and northern and northeastern Australia and New Guinea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55968); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)
(total): 10 - 12;
soft rays: 7 - 8. Snout rounded but not swollen or projecting; mouth large, oblique; upper jaw extending backward below posterior half of eye; no barbel on chin; teeth in narrow bands, well differentiated into large and small in both jaws, but none canine-like; gill rakers slender, about half length of gill filaments at angle of arch, 9 to 15 on lower limb. Second anal spine moderately long, 24 to 42 % of head length. Scales on head cycloid (smooth). Swim bladder hammer-shaped, the first pair of arborescent appendages entering head beyond transverse septum and sending a palmate branch to the front of pectoral arch. Sagitta (large earstone) with a tadpole-shaped impression, the head of which has its long axis lying obliquely to that of sagitta and the tail expanded and deepened as a hallow cone connected with the head by narrow groove.
Inhabits shallow coastal waters, estuaries, and rivers. In India, matures at the size of 14 to 16 cm TL; attains an average size of 15.8 cm TL, 20.6 cm TL, and 24 cm TL, at the end of 1 year, 1.5 years and 2 years, respectively. Juveniles prefer crustaceans and as they grow , show piscivorous tendency (Ref. 9772). Marketed fresh and dried salted (Ref. 3490).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sasaki, K., 2001. Sciaenidae. Croakers (drums). p.3117-3174. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. pp. 2791-3380. (Ref. 9772)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2424 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00338 - 0.00744), b=3.11 (2.99 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.56 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5-0.8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .