Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: From south-western Australia to New South Wales and Tasmania.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
Inhabits shallow rocky reefs, sandy and weedy flats; also in estuaries. Feeds on algae.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Scott, T.D., C.J.M. Glover and R.V. Southcott, 1974. The marine and freshwater fishes of South Australia. A.B. James, Government Printer, South Australia. 2nd ed. 392 p. (Ref. 2156)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.9 - 20.8, mean 17.5 °C (based on 298 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00668 - 0.03273), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.3 [16.0, 83.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.25 [0.59, 2.57] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.6, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.309 [0.133, 0.720] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.1 [5.6, 40.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24 [4, 135] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.37 [0.77, 2.48] mg/100g (wet weight);