Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Tylosurus: Greek, tylos = callus + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°S - 35°S (Ref. 75154)
Indo-West Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 9682); common length : 80.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9682)
soft rays: 18 - 23. Body and caudal peduncle are sub-cylindrical and covered with minute, somewhat deciduous scales; lateral-line low on the body; both jaws greatly produced with an inner row of short strong teeth, reduced in the outer row; dorsal and anal fins posterior on body with dorsal origin slightly anterior to anal fin origin, and both fins are elevated anteriorly; ventral fins abdominal, placed posteriorly, with distance from anal fin less than the fin base length; truncated caudal fin, with center slightly emarginated in adults; silvery on the sides and greenish above; in adults, with snout and fins dusky (Ref. 9002).
Coastal species (Ref. 9682). Inhabit coral reefs (Ref. 75154) and estuaries (Ref. 9002). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1999. Belonidae. Needlefishes. p. 2151-2161. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9682)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00126 (0.00056 - 0.00281), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .