Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 30°N - 37°S, 105°W - 33°W (Ref. 114953)
Western Atlanitc: from the Gulf of Mexico to southern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 78 cm
Max length : 104 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953); common length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Median row of teeth is wider transversely to their lengths. Upper jaw has 9 series of teeth. Brown above, brownish white below. Darker towards the tips of the pectorals (Ref. 6902).
A benthopelagic species found inshore over sandy bottoms from nearshore to about 20 m depth. Feeds mainly on molluscs (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Pups 38-48 cm disc width at birth (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
Endangered (EN) (A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; B1ab(i,iii,v)); Date assessed: 30 April 2004
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00463 - 0.02844), b=2.98 (2.76 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .