Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 60 m (Ref. 9313). Subtropical; 36°N - 13°S, 120°W - 77°W (Ref. 55)
Eastern Pacific: southern California to Peru, rare north of Baja California, Mexico; also at the Cocos and Galapagos islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.5, range 19 - 20 cm
Max length : 71.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 13.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 8. Forehead slopes steeply; snout somewhat pointed. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Scale rows on back parallel with lateral line. Rosy red anteriorly, becoming bright orange to yellow over most of the body; the fins are mainly yellow or orange; the inside of the mouth is white; a bluish horizontal streak runs below the eye.
Found in inshore reef areas over hard bottoms until at least 60 m depth (Ref. 9313). Tolerant to freshwaters (Ref. 36880). Form aggregations during daylight and shelter as solitary fish in caverns. Feed on fishes, shrimps, crabs and mollusks. Marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 9313).
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.5 - 28.6, mean 25.8 °C (based on 84 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.01233 - 0.01619), b=2.97 (2.94 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15;).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (80 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 19.1 [8.9, 37.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.488 [0.253, 0.985] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.6, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.406 [0.186, 0.907] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.3 [13.5, 76.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 145 [21, 727] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.47 [0.28, 0.90] mg/100g (wet weight);