Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated. Tropical; 13°N - 20°S, 21°W - 17°E (Ref. 55)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 139 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 60.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8. Diagnosis: head pointed; gape of mouth wide (Ref. 57393). Body relatively deep; dorsal head profile straight or somewhat concave; lachrymal bone broad (Ref. 81653). Maxilla extending nearly to mid-eye level (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653). Vomerine tooth plate triangular, sometimes with a short postero-median extension (Ref. 57393, 81653). Preopercular notch and knob weak; pectoral fins of adults not reaching level of anus (Ref. 55, 81653). Scales medium-sized; 5 or 6 transverse scale rows on cheeks (Ref. 57393, 81653). Scale rows on back parallel to lateral line (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653), 4 rows below middle of spinous part of dorsal fin (Ref. 57393, 81653). Reddish brown to slightly orange on back and upper sides, grading to pink or whitish on lower sides and belly; tips of pelvic fins very dark (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653). No blue line on cheeks (Ref. 57393, 81653). Juveniles with a series of about 6 to 8 vertical rows of small white spots or narrow bars on side (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653).
Adults inhabit rocky bottoms and (inshore) coral reefs; also common in brackish lagoons and found in lower courses of rivers, particularly juveniles (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.8 - 28, mean 27.5 °C (based on 153 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00756 - 0.02003), b=2.90 (2.77 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 17.5 [8.6, 33.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.288 [0.166, 0.530] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.2, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.246 [0.130, 0.469] g/100g ; Selenium = 84.3 [42.4, 167.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 154 [26, 588] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.504 [0.332, 0.850] mg/100g (wet weight);