Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 60 m (Ref. 9772), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 29°N - 10°S, 48°E - 125°E
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Taiwan and south through the Philippines and Borneo to about the southern tip of Java.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.6, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 7. Mental pores in 2 pairs, both small, the first pair at front of chin, separated by symphysis. Gill rakers slender, as long as gill filaments at angle of arch, 9-12 on lower limb. Dorsal fin with 22-24 soft rays. Second anal spine short, slender, 22-36 % of head length. Caudal fin truncate. Scales cycloid (smooth) on head and flanks. Swim bladder carrot-shaped, with 17-22 pairs of fan-like appendages along its sides, the first not entering head. Sagitta (large earstone) with a tadpole-shaped impression, the tail of which is hockey-stick-shaped. Nape with a diffused dusky blotch.
Occurs in inshore waters. Feeds on small crustaceans, benthic worms and small fishes. Marketed fresh and dried salted (Ref. 9772).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sasaki, K., 2001. Sciaenidae. Croakers (drums). p.3117-3174. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. pp. 2791-3380. (Ref. 9772)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1510 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00737 - 0.01707), b=3.06 (2.94 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.69 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.6 (0.8 - 2.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 14 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.53-1.94).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 199 [109, 365] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.904 [0.498, 1.586] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.3, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.271 [0.147, 0.455] g/100g ; Selenium = 71.5 [35.0, 136.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20 [7, 57] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.09 [0.73, 1.68] mg/100g (wet weight);