Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 150 m (Ref. 6790), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 66°N - 27°N, 19°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco, Madeira and Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 6790). Reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 1.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
Body elongate, length more than 6 times height. Greenish in upper parts, yellowish-white oblique stripes. Small 2-3 spines in front of each eye (Ref. 35388).
On sandy, muddy or gravelly bottoms, from a few meters to about 150 m. Rest on the bottom, often buried with eyes and tip of first dorsal fin exposed (Ref. 9988). At night they swim around freely, even pelagically (Ref. 35388). Feed on small invertebrates and fishes; chiefly nocturnal. Oviparous, eggs and larval stages pelagic (Ref. 4675). There are dark markings along the scales; the anterior dorsal fin is black and contains venomous spines. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be pan-fried, broiled, boiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place in June and August, pelagic eggs are 1 mm (Ref. 35388). Also Ref. 57406.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4675).
Roux, C., 1990. Trachinidae. p. 893-895. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 8.7 - 18.7, mean 10.9 °C (based on 780 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00454 - 0.00696), b=3.05 (2.99 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.71 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.4 [16.4, 48.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.288 [0.192, 0.459] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.679 [0.443, 1.049] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.2 [10.5, 34.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.1 [9.8, 70.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.438 [0.311, 0.593] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.