Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 1310 m (Ref. 26346). Deep-water; 29°S - 56°S, 158°E - 174°W
Southwest Pacific: endemic to New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 112.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 240 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 47618)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Grey with scattered charcoal blotches dorsally, greyish-white ventrally (Ref. 26346).
Occurs in coastal waters, continental shelf and upper slope (Ref. 26346). Usually found in deeper waters to 200 m (Ref. 9258). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Young hatch at about 20-23 cm (Ref. 26346).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.4 - 12.9, mean 8.2 (based on 173 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00125 - 0.00459), b=3.22 (3.06 - 3.38), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Prior r = 0.13, 2 SD range = 0.03 - 0.54, log(r) = -2.04, SD log(r) = 0.73, Based on: 1 K, 2 tgen, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (80 of 100) .