Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 132 - 172 m (Ref. 95664), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: Mauritius (Ref. 5503) then from southern Japan southwards.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Has 13 pectoral rays and maybe confused with P. russellii. Median fish are almost clear, but become spotted in large adults. It is best identified by the pale-centered scales on the principal dark bands on the body forming a net-like pattern and V-like markings across the pectoral fin rays (Ref. 48635).
On rocky substrates in subtropical waters. Usually found on open substrates with remote outcrops of reef or soft-bottom substrates at moderate depths (Ref. 48635). Feeds on fish and crustaceans. Spines are venomous.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H. and G.R. Allen, 1993. Meeresfische der Welt - Groß-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p. (Ref. 9137)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.7 - 22, mean 18.2 °C (based on 37 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00444 - 0.02358), b=3.01 (2.81 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.9 [22.3, 100.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.614 [0.339, 1.117] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.1, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.209 [0.100, 0.540] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.7 [17.8, 76.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 183 [68, 495] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.07 [0.72, 1.59] mg/100g (wet weight);