Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Umbrina: Latin, umbra, -ae = shadow, in the sense of phantom; due to its quick movements (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 3593). Subtropical; 50°N - 30°N, 18°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay and Gibraltar to southern Morocco, including the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Records south of Morocco have not been supported with descriptions.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 73.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Found over rocky and sandy bottoms in coastal waters. Juveniles enter estuaries. Feed on bottom invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Group synchronous oocytes. A multiple-batch spawner (Ref. 109248).
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 21, mean 18 °C (based on 276 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00564 - 0.01346), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28).
Prior r = 0.99, 95% CL = 0.65 - 1.48, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 69.7 [34.5, 132.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.08 [0.65, 1.84] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [18.9, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.318 [0.196, 0.477] g/100g ; Selenium = 42 [22, 76] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.74 [2.42, 21.50] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.727 [0.501, 1.129] mg/100g (wet weight);