Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Sparisomatinae
Etymology: Sparisoma: Latin, sparus = a fish with a golden head + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 27000). Subtropical; 46°N - 12°N, 32°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal, Azores and Madeira south to the Canary Islands and Senegal. Mediterranean Sea: more common in the eastern and southern coasts.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7360); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6761)
In shallow water along rocky shores. Feed on algae and small invertebrates (Ref. 6761, 56146). Herbivore species with specialized pharyngeal bones and muscles (Ref. 52194, 52195). Breeding occurs from July to September, with juveniles recruiting in late summer in Portugal (Ref. 56146).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Males matured at the same ages and sizes as did females, and size ranges of males and females overlapped, strongly suggesting gonochorism for this species (Ref. 103751).
Randall, J.E., 1990. Scaridae. p. 883-887. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7360)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.1 - 20.3, mean 17.1 °C (based on 34 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00827 - 0.01326), b=3.08 (3.03 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.27 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16; tmax=8).
Prior r = 0.48, 95% CL = 0.32 - 0.72, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27.4 [14.4, 52.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.867 [0.492, 1.429] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.3, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.171 [0.098, 0.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.3 [9.3, 34.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.6 [8.9, 83.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.66, 1.70] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.