Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 25 - 80 m (Ref. 11230). Temperate; 39°N - 18°N, 105°E - 135°E
Northwest Pacific: southern Japan and East China Sea. Reported from Hong Kong (Ref. 33067).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52186); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 52186); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 52186)
Found near shore, including semi-enclosed sea areas, in mud to sandy mud bottom (Ref. 11230). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.8 - 24.7, mean 23.5 °C (based on 46 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00632 - 0.01736), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4; k=0.26 (?)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .