Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Atherininae
Etymology: Atherina: Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane; 1770 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 27°S - 35°S
Southeast Atlantic: restricted from Lüderitz, Namibia to northern Natal, South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 4.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Forms schools along the coast and in estuaries, especially during spring (Ref. 3302). Also found in coastal lakes (Ref. 7248). Small individuals filter out small organisms such as phytoplankton and rotifers. Above 3.5 cm TL, it feeds mostly on crustaceans especially amphipods taken from the water column as well as off the bottom. Preyed upon by fishes and birds (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.3 - 23.9, mean 19.5 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00426 - 0.01415), b=3.14 (2.97 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .