Styracura schmardae, Chupare stingray : fisheries

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Styracura schmardae (Werner 1904)

Chupare stingray
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Styracura schmardae
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Potamotrygonidae (River stingrays) > Styracurinae
Etymology: Styracura: From Greek ?????? (= (styrax), meaning "spine at the butt end of a spear" (Brown, 1954), and ???? (=oura) meaning tail, a suffix commonly used since Müller & Henle (1837) for whiptailed stingrays; referring to its greatly elongated caudal stings. reference to its greatly elongated caudal stings;  schmardae: Named for Ludwig Karl Schmarda (23 August 1819-7 April 1908), zoologist, explorer and founder of the zoological museum of the University of Graz, and later professor in the Zoological Institute of the University of Vienna (1861-1883) (Ref. 112396).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal.   Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Central Atlantic: Gulf of Campeche and the West Indies to Suriname (Ref. 3168); including Brazil (Ref. 53430). Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Disc ovate, broadly rounded. Tails with blunt tubercles. Upper surface dark brown, sooty olive. Edges of disc darker. Lower surface of disc and pelvic fins yellowish or cream white. Teeth little darker than lower surface (Ref. 6902).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on sandy bottoms, occasionally near coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Marketed salted; also used in the preparation of gelatin and oil.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborators

Stehmann, M., J.D. McEachran and R. Vergara R., 1978. Dasyatidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3168)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 3168)





Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.6 - 28.1, mean 27.5 °C (based on 146 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.