Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 83 - 1800 m (Ref. 96339). Deep-water; 60°N - 30°N
Northeast Pacific: Gulf of Alaska to southern California, USA (Ref. 35612); including Japan (Ref. 43939).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6885); 17.9 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 10;
Vertebrae: 44 - 47. Adipose fin small and sickle-shaped; pectorals small. Preserved specimens dark brown on body and head, lighter below, bluish on nape, preopercle, and throat, fins clear, eye silvery (Ref. 6885). Branchiostegal rays 3. Pyloric caeca 7-9 (Ref. 5123).
Found between the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones (Ref. 265). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35612). Probably found at a depth of 100 m (Ref. 6885). A specimen of 17.92 cm SL was found to have mature ovaries (Ref. 5123).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Matarese, A.C., A.W. Kendall, D.M. Blood and M.V. Vinter, 1989. Laboratory guide to early life history stages of Northeast Pacific fishes. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 80:1-652. (Ref. 265)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.4 - 5.5, mean 3.8 (based on 52 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .