Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Cynoscion: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jordan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 10 m (Ref. 3702). Tropical; 11°N - 9°S, 46°W - 62°W
Western Atlantic: Guyana to northern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)
soft rays: 10 - 12. Colour greyish above, whitish below. Dorsal fin dusky, upper margin of pectoral fins orange, pelvic fins and anal fin pale, caudal fin grey with a dark margin. Inside of mouth orange. Mouth large, distinctly oblique, lower jaw projecting. Tip of upper jaw without enlarged canines. Chin without barbels or pores. Snout with only 2 marginal pores. Pectoral fins much shorter than pelvic fins. Gas bladder with a pair of medium-sized, nearly straight, horn-like anterior appendages. Soft portion of dorsal fin almost entirely covered with small scales (Ref 51721).
Mostly in brackish water swamps along the coasts; also entering freshwaters (Ref. 3702). Feeds on fish, shrimps and sometimes plants (Ref. 35237). Spawning takes place in the open sea. Important food fish (Ref. 3702).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 28.4, mean 27.7 °C (based on 103 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00435 - 0.01745), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 86.7 [46.2, 154.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.808 [0.484, 1.470] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.5, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.388 [0.193, 0.760] g/100g ; Selenium = 87.8 [43.4, 184.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.7 [4.4, 38.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.73, 1.76] mg/100g (wet weight);