Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 27 - 1980 m (Ref. 50550). Deep-water; 66°N - 46°N
North Pacific: northern Japan (Ref. 559), Sea of Okhotsk and Cape Navarin in the western Bering Sea to Agattu Island in the Aleutian chain and Washington, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 51978); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 51978); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 51978)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.3 - 4.5, mean 3.1 °C (based on 187 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00773 - 0.02965), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .