Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86997), usually 0 - 2 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 28°N - 15°S, 78°W - 14°W
Western Atlantic: West Indies to Brazil. Southeast Atlantic: Ascension Island.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 23 - ? cm
Max length : 34.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116955)
Inhabit coastal waters (Ref. 5217). Adults are found in shallow depth near sand; juveniles often in rockpools (Ref. 86997). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, J.M., 1978. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3791)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.9 - 28.1, mean 27.4 °C (based on 216 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00579 - 0.01726), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .