Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 500 m (Ref. 11228), usually 50 - 150 m (Ref. 36731). Subtropical; 23°S - 35°S
Southeast Atlantic: Walvis Bay, Namibia to Natal, South Africa. Record from Mauritius is probably based on a specimen originating from South Africa (Ref. 33390).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11228); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9602)
Inhabits soft bottoms (Ref. 27121). Periodically sheds the outer keratinous layer of its skin (Ref. 27121). Flesh edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 6626).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poss, S.G., 1986. Congiopodidae. p. 480-481. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 6626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.8 - 19.1, mean 14.4 °C (based on 34 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5176 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .