Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Stemonosudis: Greek, stemon, -onos = warp, weft + Latin, sudis = esox, fish of the Rhine, cited by Plinius 9.15; it also means "stake" (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range - 532 m (Ref. 13608), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Pacific Ocean: Kyushu-Palau Ridge to the Indo-Australian Archipelago (Ref. 5978) and off the Hawaiian Islands. Reported to occur in the Western Atlantic.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.7 - 18.6, mean 13.3 °C (based on 196 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00224 (0.00088 - 0.00567), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .