Please be patient while sound file is loaded. You may have to increase volume settings.
If you did not hear the sound. Click here to download sound file.
|Sound produced||yes, active sound production|
|Type of sound produced||grunts|
|Sound production organ||pharyngeal teeth & swim bladder (similar to Haemulon album)|
|Sound mechanism||pharyngeal teeth stridulation amplified by adjacent swim bladder (similar to Haemulon album)|
|Behavioural context||under duress (manual & electric stimulation)|
|Reference||Fish, M.P. and W.H. Mowbray, 1970|