List of Freshwater Fishes reported from Nicaragua
n = 114
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Table 1: 109 species currently present in the country/island (endemic, native, introduced, reintroduced);
Table 2: 3 species possibly present in the country/island (stray, questionable);
Table 3: 2 species demonstrated to be absent in the country/island (extirpated, not established, misidentification, error).
Table 4: 114 species reported from the country/island altogether.
Table : 114 .
     
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Family Species Author Info Occurrence Common names Abundance Max length Maturity Remark Photo
Achiridae Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner, 1869) Fr, Br, M native  Suela arepita (Spanish)  22.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Congridae Acromycter atlanticus Smith, 1989 Fr native   29.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Museum: USNM158882 (holotype, 285 mm TL).  No picture yet.
Mugilidae Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft, 1834) Fr, Br native   36.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Poeciliidae Alfaro cultratus (Regan, 1908) Fr native   7.50 cm TL male/unsexed ;8.00 cm female   
Poeciliidae Alfaro huberi (Fowler, 1923) Fr native   5.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;7.00 cm female   
Cichlidae Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther, 1867) Fr error  Carate (Spanish), Punto rojo (Spanish)  10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Not occurring in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of the country (Ref. 74403). Reported from Rio San Juan and Lago de Nicaragua (Ref. 7335). Also Ref. 4537, 13677. 
Cichlidae Amatitlania septemfasciata (Regan, 1908) Fr questionable   10.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Grande to the Rio Sixaola basin (Ref. 7335). Outside distributional range, occurrence needs confirmation. 
Cichlidae Amatitlania siquia Schmitter-Soto, 2007 Fr native   7.90 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, a stream flowing out of the forest into Río Siquia, 7 miles N of Rama, Atlantic coasr, UMMZ 245585 (holotype of Amatitlania siquia, 6.1 cm SL). Also found in the Great Lakes and the Mosquitian basins (Ref. 74430). 
Cichlidae Amphilophus amarillo Stauffer & McKaye, 2002 Fr endemic   15.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Lake Xiloá (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Amphilophus astorquii Stauffer, McCrary & Black, 2008 Fr native  Black midas cichlid (English)  15.46 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Lake Apoyo (Ref. 75014). 
Cichlidae Amphilophus chancho Stauffer, McCrary & Black, 2008 Fr native   24.24 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Lake Apoyo (Ref. 75014).  No picture yet.
Cichlidae Amphilophus citrinellus (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Mojarra rayada (Spanish)  24.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Lakes Nicaragua, Managua, Masaya, and Apoyo (Ref. 36377). Found in the Great Lakes and the crater lakes (Ref. 7335). Also Ref. 1739. 
Cichlidae Amphilophus flaveolus Stauffer, McCrary & Black, 2008 Fr native   13.64 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Lake Apoyo (Ref. 75014).  No picture yet.
Cichlidae Amphilophus globosus Geiger, McCrary & Stauffer, 2010 Fr endemic   16.46 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the Lake Apoyo (Ref. 85056).  No picture yet.
Cichlidae Amphilophus labiatus (Günther, 1864) Fr endemic  Mojarra picuda (Spanish)  24.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Great Lakes of Nicaragua: Lago Managua and Lago Nicaragua. Also Ref. 13677, 36377. 
Cichlidae Amphilophus sagittae Stauffer & McKaye, 2002 Fr endemic   16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Lake Xiloá (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Amphilophus supercilius Geiger, McCrary & Stauffer, 2010 Fr native   16.78 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the Lake Apoyo (Ref. 85056).  No picture yet.
Cichlidae Amphilophus tolteca Recknagel, Kusche, Elmer & Meyer, 2013 Fr native   14.96 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the crater Lake Asososca Managua, Managua (Ref. 94402).  No picture yet.
Cichlidae Amphilophus viridis Rechnagel, Kusche, Elmer & Meyer, 2013 Fr native   19.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Found only in the Lake Xiloá (Ref. 94402).  No picture yet.
Cichlidae Amphilophus xiloaensis Stauffer & McKaye, 2002 Fr endemic   16.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from Lake Xiloá (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Amphilophus zaliosus (Barlow, 1976) Fr, Or endemic  Mojarra flecha (Spanish)  20.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs only in Lake Apoyo. Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). Also Ref. 36377. 
Anablepidae Anableps dowei Gill, 1861 Fr, Br, M native   22.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;34.00 cm TL female  Found in fresh water and full salinity coastal lagoons (Ref. 4537). 
Engraulidae Anchoa curta (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) Fr, Br, M native   8.90 cm TL male/unsexed   
Engraulidae Anchoa parva (Meek & Hildebrand, 1923) Fr, Br, M native   9.10 cm TL male/unsexed   
Anguillidae Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur, 1817) Fr, Br, M native   152 cm TL male/unsexed ;122 cm TL female   
Cichlidae Archocentrus centrarchus (Gill, 1877) Fr native  Mojarra rayanda (Spanish), Mojarrita (Spanish), Viejita (Spanish), Viejitos (Spanish)  11.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Grande and Lago de Nicaragua (Ref. 7335). Also Ref. 13677. 
Ariidae Ariopsis assimilis (Günther, 1864) Fr, Br native   35.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Ariidae Ariopsis seemanni (Günther, 1864) Fr, Br, M native  Bagre tete (Spanish)  39.50 cm TL male/unsexed   
Characidae Astyanax aeneus (Günther, 1860) Fr native   7.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;12.00 cm SL female  Known from Lake Nicaragua. 
Characidae Astyanax bransfordii (Gill, 1877) Fr native  Sabalito (Spanish)  15.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Lake Nicaragua (Ref. 38376). Also Ref. 598. 
Characidae Astyanax cocibolca Bussing, 2008 Fr native   5.36 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Isletas de Granada, Lake of Nicaragua, elevation 31 m, LACM 56648-1 (holotype of Astyanax cocibolca, 4.42 cm SL, male, ex UCR 24-16) (Ref. 83537).  No picture yet.
Characidae Astyanax nasutus Meek, 1907 Fr native   10.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Lake Managua basin (Ref. 38376).  No picture yet.
Characidae Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle, 1907 Fr native     
Atherinopsidae Atherinella argentea Chernoff, 1986 Fr, Br, M native   11.10 cm SL male/unsexed   
Atherinopsidae Atherinella hubbsi (Bussing, 1979) Fr native   7.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Atherinopsidae Atherinella jiloaensis (Bussing, 1979) Fr native    Type locality, Lake Jiloá on Chiltepe Peninsula, Dept. of Managua, Nicaragua (Ref. 26282).  No picture yet.
Atherinopsidae Atherinella sardina (Meek, 1907) Fr native   5.50 cm TL male/unsexed  Type locality, Lake Managua at Managua, Nicaragua. (Ref. 26282).  No picture yet.
Lepisosteidae Atractosteus tropicus Gill, 1863 Fr native   125 cm TL male/unsexed   
Gobiidae Awaous banana (Valenciennes, 1837) Fr native   30.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;24.38 cm SL female   
Poeciliidae Belonesox belizanus Kner, 1860 Fr, Br, M native   20.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;15.00 cm TL female   
Poeciliidae Brachyrhaphis holdridgei Bussing, 1967 Fr native   5.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female    No picture yet.
Bryconidae Brycon costaricensis Angulo & Gracian-Negrete, 2013 Fr native   32.51 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Wawa basin (Ref. 95069).  No picture yet.
Bryconidae Brycon guatemalensis Regan, 1908 Fr native   59.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in the Grijalva River (Ref. 6858). 
Carcharhinidae Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839) Fr, Br, M native  Tiburon sarda (Spanish), Toro (Spanish)  360 cm TL male/unsexed ;400 cm TL female  Found in San Juan River and Lake Nicaragua where it is well known for its attacks on people and dogs. Also Ref. 13442, 79732, 27549. 
Characidae Carlana eigenmanni (Meek, 1912) Fr native   5.39 cm SL male/unsexed    No picture yet.
Ariidae Cathorops fuerthii (Steindachner, 1876) Fr, Br, M native   28.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Ariidae Cathorops steindachneri (Gilbert & Starks, 1904) Fr, Br, M native   36.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Centropomidae Centropomus ensiferus Poey, 1860 Fr, Br, M native  Robalo maqueque (Spanish)  36.20 cm TL male/unsexed   
Centropomidae Centropomus nigrescens Günther, 1864 Fr, Br, M native  Róbalo redondo (Spanish)  123 cm TL male/unsexed   
Centropomidae Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 Fr, Br, M native  Robalo chucumite (Spanish)  72.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Centropomidae Centropomus pectinatus Poey, 1860 Fr, Br, M native  Robalo constantino (Spanish)  56.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Paralichthyidae Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann, 1889 Fr, Br native   27.00 cm TL male/unsexed  In range Ref. 11482. 
Cichlidae Cribroheros alfari (Meek, 1907) Fr native   15.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Cribroheros longimanus (Günther, 1867) Fr native  Carate (Spanish), Pecho rojo (Spanish)  13.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Rio San Juan (Ref. 7335) and Lake of Nicaragua (Ref. 13677). Also Ref. 36377. 
Cichlidae Cribroheros rostratus (Gill, 1877) Fr native  Carate (Spanish), Masamiche (Spanish), Masamiches (Spanish)  18.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Great Lakes. Also Ref. 13677. 
Cichlidae Cryptoheros spilurus (Günther, 1862) Fr native  Congo (Spanish)  12.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;8.00 cm TL female   
Gobiidae Ctenogobius claytonii (Meek, 1902) Fr native   5.80 cm SL male/unsexed    No picture yet.
Rivulidae Cynodonichthys isthmensis (Garman, 1895) Fr native   7.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Cyprinidae Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Fr, Aq introduced   120 cm TL male/unsexed   
Eleotridae Dormitator latifrons (Richardson, 1844) Fr, Br, M native   41.00 cm TL male/unsexed ;39.00 cm TL female   
Clupeidae Dorosoma chavesi Meek, 1907 Fr native   18.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Great Lakes of Nicaragua (Ref. 36880). 
Eleotridae Eleotris picta Kner, 1863 Fr native   44.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Eleotridae Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin, 1789) Fr native   25.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Eleotridae Erotelis smaragdus (Valenciennes, 1837) Fr native   20.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Gerreidae Eucinostomus argenteus Baird & Girard, 1855 Fr, Br, M native  Mojarra plateada (Spanish), Mojarrita plateada (Spanish)  21.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 3722. 
Gerreidae Eucinostomus currani Zahuranec, 1980 Fr, Br, M native   21.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Gerreidae Eucinostomus gracilis (Gill, 1862) Fr, Br, M native   21.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Gerreidae Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier, 1830) Fr, Br, M native  Mojarra rayada (Spanish)  40.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Poeciliidae Gambusia nicaraguensis Günther, 1866 Fr native   3.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.08 cm SL female  Described originally from Lake Nicaragua, possibly a mistaken locality since it has not been confirmed since by investigators studying that environment. Collected in the Río Escondido drainage, at a distance of 100 km from the sea (Ref. 36880).  No picture yet.
Gerreidae Gerres cinereus (Walbaum, 1792) Fr, Br, M native   41.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Gobiidae Gobioides peruanus (Steindachner, 1880) Fr, Br native   45.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Eleotridae Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepède, 1800 Fr, Br, M native   90.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Recorded from Lake Xiloá and introduced at Lake Apoyo May 1991. It has been reported to prey upon the atherinid Melaniris cf. sardina in Lake Apoyo and cichlid fry and smaller G. dormitor (Ref. 46128). 
Eleotridae Gobiomorus maculatus (Günther, 1859) Fr, Br native   27.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Eleotridae Hemieleotris latifasciata (Meek & Hildebrand, 1912) Fr native   12.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from San Juan del Sur. 
Cichlidae Herotilapia multispinosa (Günther, 1867) Fr native   17.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Lake Managua (Ref. 13677). Also Ref. 4537. 
Cichlidae Hypsophrys nematopus (Günther, 1867) Fr native   14.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the San Juan River drainage including Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua (Ref. 36377) Also Ref. 7335. 
Cichlidae Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Günther, 1864) Fr native  abundant (always seen in some numbers) 16.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;20.00 cm TL female  Kown from the San Juan drainage including the Lake Nicaragua (Ref. 36377). Recorded from Managua (Ref. 4537). Third most frequently found cichlid in the Great Lakes of Nicaragua (Ref. 7335). Type locality, Lake Nicaragua, BMNH 1867.9.23.37 (holotype of Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, 14.1 cm SL) (Ref. 74403). Also Ref. 13677. 
Mugilidae Joturus pichardi Poey, 1860 Fr, Br native   61.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 3791, 50865. 
Kuhliidae Kuhlia mugil (Forster, 1801) Fr, Br, M native   40.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Clupeidae Lile stolifera (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) Fr, Br, M native   13.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Mayaheros urophthalmus (Günther, 1862) Fr, Br native   39.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 6387. 
Syngnathidae Microphis lineatus (Kaup, 1856) Fr native   19.40 cm SL male/unsexed   
Mugilidae Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 Fr, Br, M native  Lisa pardete (Spanish)  100.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Mugilidae Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 Fr, Br, M native  Lisa criolla (Spanish)  91.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Carangidae Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832) Fr, Br, M native  Zapatero palometa (Spanish)  49.70 cm TL male/unsexed   
Salmonidae Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792) Fr introduced   150 cm TL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864) Fr, Br, Aq introduced   45.70 cm TL male/unsexed  Also Ref. 3691, 7306. 
Cichlidae Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) Fr, Br introduced   39.00 cm SL male/unsexed 12 Escaped into Lake Managua which resulted to a long term detriment of local fish populations and fisheries (Ref. 9987). Introduced to Lake Moyua (Ref. 3, 87, 5731). Also Ref. 13364. 
Cichlidae Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Fr, Br, Aq introduced   60.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Anablepidae Oxyzygonectes dovii (Günther, 1866) Fr, Br native   15.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Parachromis dovii (Günther, 1864) Fr, Fi native  Lagunero (Spanish)  72.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Lago de Nicaragua. Also Ref. 13677. 
Cichlidae Parachromis friedrichsthalii (Heckel, 1840) Fr, Br misidentification   28.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the country (Ref. 2060). Occurrence in the country is not confirmed (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Parachromis loisellei (Bussing, 1989) Fr native   18.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio San Juan basin including the Great Lakes (Ref. 7335). Found in the Tamarindo River (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Parachromis managuensis (Günther, 1867) Fr native  Guapote barcino (Spanish) common (usually seen) 55.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the crater lakes and the Great Lakes. Recorded from Lago de Nicaragua, Rio Creshala and Lake Apoyo. A prevalent species in Lake Apoyo, preying on sardines as well as other fishes (Ref. 46128). Also Ref. 5723, 13677, 46128. 
Poeciliidae Phallichthys amates (Miller, 1907) Fr native   7.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.00 cm TL female   
Poeciliidae Phallichthys tico Bussing, 1963 Fr questionable   2.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.50 cm SL female  Known from Lake Nicaragua (Ref. 36880) and its tributaries (D. Fromm, pers. comm.). Outside distributional range, occurrence needs confirmation (Ref. 50894). 
Poeciliidae Poecilia mexicana Steindachner, 1863 Fr native   11.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Haemulidae Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann, 1898 Fr native  Corocoro boquimorada (Spanish)  51.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Haemulidae Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier, 1830) Fr, Br, M native  Corocoro crocro (Spanish)  38.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Poeciliidae Priapichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1916 Fr questionable   3.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from San Juan del Sur (Ref. 36880). Outside distributional range, occurrence needs further confirmation.  No picture yet.
Syngnathidae Pseudophallus mindii (Meek & Hildebrand, 1923) Fr native   16.00 cm SL male/unsexed   
Syngnathidae Pseudophallus starksii (Jordan & Culver, 1895) Fr native   17.60 cm SL male/unsexed   
Heptapteridae Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther, 1864) Fr native   23.08 cm SL male/unsexed    No picture yet.
Heptapteridae Rhamdia laticauda (Kner, 1858) Fr native   29.40 cm SL male/unsexed   
Heptapteridae Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther, 1864) Fr native  Bagre (Spanish), Chuchin (Spanish)  26.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Lake Managua (Ref. 6868). Also Ref. 36914. 
Heptapteridae Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Fr native   47.40 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Rio San Francisco (Ref. 6868). 
Characidae Roeboides bouchellei Fowler, 1923 Fr native   8.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Type locality, Pis Pis River, Great Falls (Ref. 36811). 
Gobiidae Sicydium salvini Ogilvie-Grant, 1884 Fr native   14.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Recorded from the Río Tamarindo (Ref. 36880). 
Belonidae Strongylura exilis (Girard, 1854) Fr, Br, M native  Aguja brava (Spanish)  91.00 cm TL male/unsexed   
Belonidae Strongylura marina (Walbaum, 1792) Fr, Br, M native  Agujon verde (Spanish)  111 cm TL male/unsexed   
Synbranchidae Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 Fr native   150 cm TL male/unsexed   
Cichlidae Tomocichla tuba (Meek, 1912) Fr native   30.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from Rio Escondido. 
Cichlidae Vieja maculicauda (Regan, 1905) Fr, Br native  Palometa (Spanish)  25.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Found in Lago de Nicaragua. Also Ref. 4537, 13677. 
Poeciliidae Xenophallus umbratilis (Meek, 1912) Fr native   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from Lake Nicaragua on the Atlantic versant to the Río Parismina and was collected once in Río Tenorio drainage on the Pacfiic slope. Collected from Lake Nicaragua by a net trawled at 10-12 m depth, several kilometers from the shore (Ref. 36880). 
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