List of Freshwater Fishes reported from Brazil
n = 3546
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Table 1: 3512 species currently present in the country/island (endemic, native, introduced, reintroduced);
Table 2: 17 species possibly present in the country/island (stray, questionable);
Table 3: 17 species demonstrated to be absent in the country/island (extirpated, not established, misidentification, error).
Table 4: 3546 species reported from the country/island altogether.
Table : 3546 .
     
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Family Species Author Info Occurrence Common names Abundance Max length Maturity Remark Photo
Cichlidae Apistogramma caetei Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.60 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female  Known from the Apeú and Caete rivers in Bragança, Pará (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé in Bragança, Pará, Brazil, 1°45'S, 46°47'W (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma commbrae (Regan, 1906) Fr native  Cará (Portuguese), Acará (Portuguese)   3.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.50 cm TL female    
Cichlidae Apistogramma diplotaenia Kullander, 1987 Fr native    2.92 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm TL female  Type locality, est. Amazonas, R., Negro drainage system, , downstream of the R. Daraã, MZUSP 28213 (holotype of Apistogramma diplotaenia, 2.84 cm SL, male) (Ref. 86447). Known from the Amazon River basin, in the middle Negro River (Ref. 36377). Found throughout the Anavilhanas Archipelago in the Rio Negro where fishing is now forbidden (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma elizabethae Kullander, 1980 Fr native    4.00 cm SL male/unsexed ;3.00 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Uaupés River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Affluent of Rio Uaupés at Trovao, ca. 20 km from mouth of Uaupés, 0°02'N, 67°26'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma erythrura Staeck & Schindler, 2008 Fr introduced    4.34 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Apistogramma eunotus Kullander, 1981 Fr native   5.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma geisleri Meinken, 1971 Fr native    2.80 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the region of the lower Trombetas River basin (Ref. 36377). Belem do Para, near where these fish can be found, was a major fish exporting point in the 1950's and large quantities of these fish were exported but never spawned because the females were separated as another species and these fish were shipped with the females of still another species (Ref. 12251). Type locality: Rio Curuçamba near Obidos, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma gephyra Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.30 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female  Known from the lower Negro River basin, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Igarapé affluent of Rio Negro, Archipel das Anavilhanas, 3°00'S, 60°45'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma gibbiceps Meinken, 1969 Fr endemic   4.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from Branco and middle Negro River basins in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Negro, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma gossei Kullander, 1982 Fr native    4.40 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Oyapock River (Ref. 12251, 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma hippolytae Kullander, 1982 Fr endemic    3.40 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin, middle Negro River drainage (near mouths of Urubaxi and Daraã rivers), and Lake Manacapuru (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé des Lago Manacapuru, Rio Solimoes system, Amazonas, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma inconspicua Kullander, 1983 Fr native   3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female   
Cichlidae Apistogramma juruensis Kullander, 1986 Fr endemic    2.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the upper Juruá River basin, Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma kullanderi Varella & Sabaj Pérez, 2014 Fr native   7.97 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.87 cm SL female  Found only in the from the upper rio Curuá and two of its larger tributaries on Serra do Cachimbo, an isolated plateau of the Brazilian (Guaporé) Shield (Ref. 98797). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma linkei Koslowski, 1985 Fr native    3.90 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female    
Cichlidae Apistogramma meinkeni Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.50 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm female  Known from the Uaupés River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Affluent of Rio Uaupés at Trovao, ca. 20 km from mouth of Uaupés, 0°02'N, 67°26'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma mendezi Römer, 1994 Fr endemic     Known from the Negro River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Small igarapé (forest stream) near airfield of Barcelos do Rio Negro, Dept. Amazonas, Brazil (aprox. 63.04’W/0.01’S), sometimes called "Rio Salgádo" by local people. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma moae Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    5.00 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the upper Juruá River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma paucisquamis Kullander & Staeck, 1988 Fr endemic   3.40 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the middle and lower Negro River from Daraã River to the Anavilhanas Archipelago (Ref. 36377). Type locality: small shallow bay on the right bank of Rio Negro, Anavilhanas Is., MZUSP 36952 (holotype of Apistogramma paucisquamis, 2.97 cm SL, adult male) (Ref. 58483). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma personata Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    5.17 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Uaupés River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Uaupés, Assai, 0°02'N, 67°27'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma pertensis (Haseman, 1911) Fr, Or endemic  Pertense (Portuguese)   3.90 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.50 cm TL female  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Negro River and from Manacapuru to Monte Alegre along the Amazon-Solimões River (Ref. 36377). Exported to North America as an aquarium fish (Ref. 4537). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma piauiensis Kullander, 1980 Fr native    2.30 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Parnaíba River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Lagoa Seca, ca. 1 km from camp on Rio Parnaiba at Barra do Longa, near Buriti dos Lopes, Brazil, 3°08'S, 41°54'W (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma pulchra Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Madeira River basin of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Preto, affluent of Rio Candeias, 25 km from Porto-Velho, Rondonia Terr., Brazil, 8°46'S, 63°45'W (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma regani Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic  Acarra (Portuguese)   4.90 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Negro River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé affluent of Rio Negro, Archipel das Anavilhanas, 3°00'S, 60°45'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Anavilhanas Archipelago is now a protected area where fishing is prohibited (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma resticulosa Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    3.87 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the Madeira River drainage near Huamitá (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Igarapé Xicanga, ca. 5 km west of Humaitá, 7°31'S, 63°04'W, Rio Madeira drainage system, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma rupununi Fowler, 1914 Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;5.00 cm female  Known from the Branco River of the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36377). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma salpinction Kullander & Ferreira, 2005 Fr native    3.35 cm SL male/unsexed    
Cichlidae Apistogramma staecki Koslowski, 1985 Fr native    2.10 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.00 cm female  Known from Mato Grosso (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma taeniata (Günther, 1862) Fr endemic   4.20 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Amazon River basin, in the lower Tapajós River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Rio Cupai, 800 mi. from the sea, Brazil (Ref. 12965). Also Ref. 12251. 
Cichlidae Apistogramma trifasciata (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903) Fr native    3.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;4.60 cm female  Known from the Amazon River basin in the middle Guaporé drainage and from the Paraná River basin in the Paraguay River drainage (Ref. 36377). Found in Mato Grosso area (Ref. 12251). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma tucurui Staeck, 2003 Fr native     Known from basin of the lower Rio Tocantins in Pará (Ref. 55839). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma uaupesi Kullander, 1980 Fr endemic    2.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;6.00 cm TL female  Known from the Amazon River basin in the Uaupés River and nearby Negro River basin (Ref. 36377). Type locality: Affluent of Rio Uaupés at Trovao, ca. 20 km from mouth of Uaupés, 0°02'N, 67°26'W, Amazonas State, Brazil (Ref. 12965). 
Cichlidae Apistogramma wapisana Römer, Hahn & Conrad, 2006 Fr native   2.80 cm SL male/unsexed ;2.91 cm SL female  Found in north-west Brazi. Known from the drainage of the upper Rio Branco in the vicinity of the town of Boa Vista Caught in flowing waters, specifically the Igarapés luciniu and Agua Boa, and the Rio Cauamé; also in central Rio Negro drainae in the vicinity of Barcellos do Rio Negro (Ref. 57916). 
Loricariidae Apistoloricaria laani Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1988 Fr native    13.00 cm SL male/unsexed    
Loricariidae Apistoloricaria ommation Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1988 Fr native    9.80 cm SL male/unsexed   
Trichomycteridae Apomatoceros alleni Eigenmann, 1922 Fr native    14.60 cm SL male/unsexed   
Apteronotidae Apteronotus acidops Triques, 2011 Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese), Boca rachada (Portuguese)  32.10 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the upper rio Paraná basin (Ref. 88927). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766) Fr native  Itoui cavalo (Portuguese), Ituí cavalo (Portuguese)   50.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Occurs in Paraná, Paraguay (Ref. 4537) and Machado River basins (Ref. 97589). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau, 1855) Fr native  Sarrapu (Portuguese), Soia (Portuguese)   27.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus brasiliensis (Reinhardt, 1852) Fr native  Sarapó (Portuguese)   29.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in Das Velhas River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus camposdapazi de Santana & Lehmann A., 2006 Fr native    Known from the Rio Tocantins basin in Goiás State (Ref. 57702). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus caudimaculosus de Santana, 2003 Fr native    28.68 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Novo in the middle Rio Negro and from Rio do Peixe in the upper Rio Negro, Paraguay River basin in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Pantanal wetland, western Brazil (Ref. 50581). Type locality: Mato Grosso do Sul. AQUARAP Pantanal 19°36.4'S, 56°24.87'W, Aquidauna, Rio Novo, Brejo de Santa Sofia (Ref. 50581). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus ellisi (Alonso de Arámburu, 1957) Fr questionable    32.80 cm TL male/unsexed  Outside distributional range, occurrence needs confirmation. 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus leptorhynchus (Ellis, 1912) Fr native   26.90 cm TL male/unsexed   
Apteronotidae Apteronotus lindalvae de Santana & Cox Fernandes, 2012 Fr native   33.30 cm TL male/unsexed  Known from the Rio Uatumã, at Cachoeiras (waterfalls) do Mirití and Morena in the Amazon basin (Ref. 91045). 
Apteronotidae Apteronotus macrolepis (Steindachner, 1881) Fr native   18.00 cm TL male/unsexed  Found in the Amazon River basin (Ref. 36886). 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima agassizii (Valenciennes, 1847) Fr native    Found in lowlands of Amazon (Ref. 93668). 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) Fr, Fi, Rstr native  Bodeco (Portuguese), Pira urucu (Portuguese), Pirarucu (Portuguese), Pirarucú (Portuguese), Pirarucu preto (Portuguese), Pirarucu vermelho (Portuguese), Pirosca (Portuguese)   450 cm TL male/unsexed 120 TL Known from the Amazon River basin (Ref. 50891). Much appreciated food fish. Overfished in 1998. Catch prohibited from November to March (Ref. 27548). Also Ref. 1739. 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima leptosoma Stewart, 2013 Fr native   77.60 cm SL male/unsexed  Known from the Solimões River in Amazonas State (Ref. 94273). 
Osteoglossidae Arapaima mapae (Valenciennes, 1847) Fr native   203 cm SL male/unsexed  Known only from the Lago do Amapá in Amapá State (Ref. 94273). 
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