Sphyrna lewini, Scalloped hammerhead : fisheries, gamefish
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Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)

Scalloped hammerhead
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Sphyrna lewini   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna lewini (Scalloped hammerhead)
Sphyrna lewini
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 89972), usually 0 - 25 m (Ref. 26999).   亞熱帶的; 46°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Uruguay (Ref. 58839), including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: western Mediterranean (Ref. 6678) to Namibia (Ref. 6812). Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea, East Africa and throughout the Indian Ocean; Japan to New Caledonia, Hawaii and Tahiti. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Ecuador, probably Peru.
環球分佈於海岸的暖溫帶與熱帶的海洋.(參考文獻 13562) 西大西洋: 美國的紐澤西到巴西, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海。 東大西洋: 地中海 (參考文獻 6678) 到那米比亞.(參考文獻 6812) 印度-太平洋: 紅海, 東非與在印度洋各處; 日本到新加勒多尼亞,夏威夷與大溪地島。 東太平洋: 美國的南加州到厄瓜多, 可能祕魯。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 225.0, range 140 - 273 cm
Max length : 430 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 26938); common length : 360 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 13562); 最大体重: 152.4 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 35 年 (Ref. 31395)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. This hammerhead shark is distinguished by having the following characters: large, moderately slender body; broad, narrow bladed head, arched anterior margin with prominent median indentation and lateral indentation; nostrils with strong prenarial grooves; hind margins of eyes slightly posterior to or nearly opposite front of mouth; teeth triangular, deeply notched posteriorly, with smooth or finely serrated edges; first dorsal fin moderately high, second dorsal and pectoral fins low; upper precaudal pit transverse crescentric. Colour of body light grey or greyish brown above, shading to white below, pectoral fin tips dusky and a dark blotch on lower caudal fin lobe (Ref. 13562, 114967).
大的 hammerhead 在头部的中心具有一个凹槽; 第一背鳍一般高, 第二背鳍与腹鳍低的.(参考文献 5578) 头部的前缘宽广弓形有突出的中央凹槽。 头部的侧边翼狭窄的, 后缘向后地清扫了.(参考文献 26938) 均匀的灰色,浅灰褐色,或橄榄色的上方, 颜色变化成腹面白色的; 顶端的胸鳍有灰色的或黑色的腹地.(参考文献 13562)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark occurring over continental and insular shelves and adjacent deep water, often approaching close inshore and entering enclosed bays and estuaries (Ref. 244, 11230, 58302). Found in inshore and offshore waters to about 275 m depth (Ref. 26938, 11230, 58302); has been filmed at a baited camera in 512 m depth (Lis Maclaren, pers. comm. 2005). Huge schools of small migrating individuals move pole ward in the summer in certain areas (Ref. 244). Permanent resident populations also exist (Ref. 244). Juveniles occur in coastal areas (Ref. 58784). Adults solitary, in pairs, or schools; young in large schools (Ref. 13562). Feed mainly on teleost fishes and cephalopods (Ref. 6871), also lobsters, shrimps, crabs (Ref. 30573), including other sharks and rays (Ref. 37816). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Mature females produce 15-31, of 43-55 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Considered potentially dangerous to people but often not aggressive when approached by divers (Ref. 13562). Readily available to inshore artisanal and small commercial fisheries as well as to offshore operations (Ref. 13562). Sold fresh, dried-salted, smoked and frozen; also sought for its fins and hides (Ref. 9987). Oil used for vitamins and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 13562).

沿岸及大洋性, 半-出现大陆棚与岛屿棚之上与毗连的深水域的大洋性的鲨鱼, 时常接近近岸而且进入封闭的海湾与河口.(参考文献 244,11230) 发现于了近岸与外海水域到大约 275 公尺深;(参考文献 26938,11230) 已经在 512 公尺深中的一台被以饵引诱的相机被薄膜 (李 Maclaren , pers. comm。 2005)。 小的移动个体移动杆的极大鱼群在特定的区域中守护夏天时。 (参考文献 244) 永久的定居族群也存在。 (参考文献 244) 成鱼独居性, 成对, 或鱼群; 幼魚在大群魚群。 (參考文獻 13562) 胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 生產品 15-31, 43-55 公分幼魚在一胎。 (參考文獻 26938,1602) 主要吃硬骨魚與頭足類動物 (參考文獻 6871), 也龍蝦,蝦,螃蟹 (參考文獻 30573), 包括其他的鯊魚與魟.(參考文獻 37816) 被認為是對人類可能有危險性但是時常不侵略性當潛水者接近的時候.(參考文獻 13562) 輕易有用到近海魚民與小的商業漁場以及對外海手術.(參考文獻 13562) 生鮮販賣了, 乾燥鹽醃, 煙燻了與冷凍的; 也尋找了它的鰭與皮。 (參考文獻 9987) 油用來了維他命與殘骸用於魚粉。 (參考文獻 13562)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 13-23 in a litter (Ref. 6871); 12-41 pups after a gestation period of 9-10 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth 45-50 cm TL (Ref. 13562); 39-57 cm TL (Ref.58048).環球分佈於海岸的暖溫帶與熱帶的海洋.(參考文獻 13562) 西大西洋: 美國的紐澤西到巴西, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海。 東大西洋: 地中海 (參考文獻 6678) 到那米比亞.(參考文獻 6812) 印度-太平洋: 紅海, 東非與在印度洋各處; 日本到新加勒多尼亞,夏威夷與大溪地島。 東太平洋: 美國的南加州到厄瓜多, 可能祕魯。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A4bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484)


对人类的威胁

另外地 (Ref. 13562)





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 18.7 - 29, mean 27.2 (based on 2890 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00355 (0.00278 - 0.00453), b=3.11 (3.04 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (rm=0.028; K=0.05-0.24; tm=3-15; tmax=41.6; Fec=13-23).
Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 2 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (81 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.