Sphyrna lewini, Scalloped hammerhead : fisheries, gamefish
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Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)

Scalloped hammerhead
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Sphyrna lewini   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Sphyrna lewini
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina; oceandromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 89972), usually 0 - 25 m (Ref. 26999).   Tropical; 46°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Uruguay (Ref. 58839), including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: western Mediterranean (Ref. 6678) to Namibia (Ref. 6812). Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea, East Africa and throughout the Indian Ocean; Japan to New Caledonia, Hawaii and Tahiti. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Ecuador, probably Peru.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 225.0, range 140 - 273 cm
Max length : 430 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 26938); common length : 360 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 13562); peso máx. publicado: 152.4 kg (Ref. 40637); idade máx. registrada: 35 anos (Ref. 31395)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 0. This hammerhead shark is distinguished by having the following characters: large, moderately slender body; broad, narrow bladed head, arched anterior margin with prominent median indentation and lateral indentation; nostrils with strong prenarial grooves; hind margins of eyes slightly posterior to or nearly opposite front of mouth; teeth triangular, deeply notched posteriorly, with smooth or finely serrated edges; first dorsal fin moderately high, second dorsal and pectoral fins low; upper precaudal pit transverse crescentric. Colour of body light grey or greyish brown above, shading to white below, pectoral fin tips dusky and a dark blotch on lower caudal fin lobe (Ref. 13562, 114967).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark occurring over continental and insular shelves and adjacent deep water, often approaching close inshore and entering enclosed bays and estuaries (Ref. 244, 11230, 58302). Found in inshore and offshore waters to about 275 m depth (Ref. 26938, 11230, 58302); has been filmed at a baited camera in 512 m depth (Lis Maclaren, pers. comm. 2005). Huge schools of small migrating individuals move pole ward in the summer in certain areas (Ref. 244). Permanent resident populations also exist (Ref. 244). Juveniles occur in coastal areas (Ref. 58784). Adults solitary, in pairs, or schools; young in large schools (Ref. 13562). Feed mainly on teleost fishes and cephalopods (Ref. 6871), also lobsters, shrimps, crabs (Ref. 30573), including other sharks and rays (Ref. 37816). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Mature females produce 15-31, of 43-55 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Considered potentially dangerous to people but often not aggressive when approached by divers (Ref. 13562). Readily available to inshore artisanal and small commercial fisheries as well as to offshore operations (Ref. 13562). Sold fresh, dried-salted, smoked and frozen; also sought for its fins and hides (Ref. 9987). Oil used for vitamins and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 13562).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 13-23 in a litter (Ref. 6871); 12-41 pups after a gestation period of 9-10 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth 45-50 cm TL (Ref. 13562); 39-57 cm TL (Ref.58048).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Colaboradores

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Vulnerável, ver Livro Vermelho da UICN (VU) (A4bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484)


Ameaça para os humanos

Other (Ref. 13562)





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: espcies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim
FAO(pescarias: produo, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Agregação de desova
Fecundidade
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Desenvolvimento dos ovos
Referências
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Perfil para aquacultura
Estirpes
Genética
Frequências alélicas
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 18.7 - 29, mean 27.2 (based on 2890 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00355 (0.00278 - 0.00453), b=3.11 (3.04 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (rm=0.028; K=0.05-0.24; tm=3-15; tmax=41.6; Fec=13-23).
Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (81 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Medium.