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Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell, 1837)

Whitetip reef shark
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Triaenodon obesus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) 真鯊目 (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks) 白眼鮫科 (Requiem sharks)
  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 1 - 330 m (Ref. 244), usually 8 - 40 m (Ref. 244).   熱帶; 29°N - 30°S, 33°E - 77°W (Ref. 55196)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Indonesia and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, and the Austral and Pitcairn islands; throughout Micronesia. Eastern Pacific: Cocos and Galapagos islands, Panama to Costa Rica.
印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到印尼與阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819), 北至琉球與小笠原群島, 南至新南威爾斯 (澳洲) ,新加勒多尼亞與澳洲與皮特凱恩群島; 在密克羅尼西亞各處。 東太平洋: 可可島與加拉巴哥群島,巴拿馬到哥斯大黎加。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 105 - 109 cm
Max length : 213 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 244); common length : 160 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 244); 最大體重: 18.3 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 6807)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. A small, slender shark with an extremely short, broad snout, oval eyes, and conspicuous white tips on the 1st dorsal (sometimes 2nd) and upper caudal fins; 2nd dorsal almost as large as 1st; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578). Spiracles usually present, teeth 47-50/ 44-46, in at least 2 functional rows. Grey above, lighter below and sometimes with dark spots on sides (Ref. 5578). First dorsal-fin lobe and dorsal caudal-fin lobe with conspicuous white tips, second dorsal-fin lobe and ventral caudal-fin lobe often white-tipped (Ref. 9997).
一種小的, 細長的在第一背鰭 (有時第二) 與上尾部的鰭上鯊魚有一個非常短又寬的吻,橢圓形的眼與顯著的白色頂端; 第二背鰭幾乎與第一一樣大; 沒有間背脊.(參考文獻 5578) 呼吸孔通常呈現,齒 47-50/44-46,至少形成 2 功能的列。 背面灰色的, 腹面顏色較淡而且在側邊上有時具有深色的斑點.(參考文獻 5578) 第一背鰭葉與背部尾鰭葉時常有明顯的白色頂端,第二背鰭-鰭的葉與腹的尾鰭葉尖端白色的.(參考文獻 9997)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Sluggish inhabitant of lagoons and seaward reefs where it is often found resting in caves or under coral ledges during the day (Ref. 6871, 58302), or usually on a sand patch, or in a channel (Ref. 37816). More active at night or during slack tide in areas of strong currents (Ref. 37816). Feeds on benthic animals such as fishes, octopi, spiny lobsters and crabs (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Travels distances from about 0.3 to 3 km in periods up to about 1 year (Ref. 244). Rarely reported to attack humans, but is potentially dangerous especially when fish had been speared (Ref. 244). Probably fished wherever it occurs (Ref. 244). Caught by inshore longline and gillnet fisheries, and probably adversely affected by dynamite fishing (Ref.58048). Meat and liver utilized fresh for human consumption (Ref. 244). The liver of this shark has been reported as toxic (Ref. 583). One to five 60 cm young per litter (Ref. 1602).

潟湖與臨海礁石的緩動性棲居動物在那裡它時常發現在洞中或在珊瑚岩架下休息在白天期間 (參考文獻 6871,58302), 或通常在一個小塊沙地上, 或在一個峽道中.(參考文獻 37816) 更活躍的在晚上或在平緩的潮水的時候在強水流的區域中.(參考文獻 37816) 吃底棲的動物例如魚,章魚,棘龍蝦與螃蟹。 (參考文獻 244) 胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 在時期的旅行距離從大約 0.3 到 3 公里達到大約 1 年。 (參考文獻 244) 很少報告攻擊人類, 但是是可能危險的尤其當魚已經被獵殺.(參考文獻 244) 無論它在何處出現可能被捕獲。 (參考文獻 244) 肉與肝臟生鮮利用供人類消費.(參考文獻 244) 這一隻鯊魚的肝臟已經被報告有毒.(參考文獻 583) 每胎的一到五個 60 公分幼魚.(參考文獻 1602)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 1 to 5 young per litter (Ref. 244); usually 2 or 3 pups after a gestation period of > 5 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth 52-60 cm TL (Ref. 9997). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). During courtship and prior to copulation, the male bites the female on her right pectoral fin and uses his medially flexed right clasper in copulation (Ref. 49562, 51119). During copulation which lasts from 15 seconds to 4 minutes (Ref. 49562, 51119), both heads of the male and female are slammed in the substrate and their bodies undulate to keep their tails elevated (Ref. 51155). This mating behavior was observed in individuals bred in captivity.印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到印尼與阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819), 北至琉球與小笠原群島, 南至新南威爾斯 (澳洲) ,新加勒多尼亞與澳洲與皮特凱恩群島; 在密克羅尼西亞各處。 東太平洋: 可可島與加拉巴哥群島,巴拿馬到哥斯大黎加。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.3 - 28.8, mean 27.6 (based on 898 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00196 - 0.00559), b=3.14 (3.00 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (tm=5-9; tmax=25; Fec=1).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.