Galeocerdo cuvier, Tiger shark : fisheries, gamefish
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Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822)

Tiger shark
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Galeocerdo cuvier   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Galeocerdo cuvier
Picture by Béarez, P.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) 真鯊目 (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks) 白眼鮫科 (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Galeocerdo: Greek, galeos = a shark + latin, cerdus = the hard hairs of pigs (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Péron & Lesueur.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 800 m (Ref. 96339), usually 0 - 140 m (Ref. 26938).   亞熱帶的; 62°N - 44°S, 180°W - 180°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland to Angola. Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea and East Africa to Hawaii and Tahiti, north to southern Japan, south to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Peru, including the Revillagigedo, Cocos, and Galapagos islands. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
沿著赤道與溫帶的海洋環球分佈。 西大西洋: 美國麻薩諸塞州到烏拉圭, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海。 東大西洋: 冰島到安哥拉。 印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到夏威夷與大溪地島, 北至日本南部, 南至紐西蘭。 東太平洋: 美國的南加州到祕魯, 包括雷維拉吉哥多島,可可島與加拉巴哥群島。 高度遷移的種, 1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 210 - 350 cm
Max length : 750 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 58784); common length : 500 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 2683); 最大體重: 807.4 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年齡: 50 年 (Ref. 4827)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. This species is a huge, vertical tiger-striped shark with a very short or broad, bluntly rounded snout (its length much less than width of mouth), long upper labial furrows (about as long as snout, reaching front of eyes), a big mouth with large, saw-edged, cockscomb-shaped teeth (coarsely serrated with outer edges deeply notched and tips directed obliquely outward); spiracles small, slit-like, but easily visible, caudal keels low. Colour of back dark grey or greyish brown with vertical dark grey to black bars and rectangular spots often forming bars on sides and fins, but fading with growth (Ref. 5578, 9997).
極大, 縱長的虎班鯊魚有寬, 鈍地圓的吻,長的上面唇溝, 與一大的嘴部具有大的﹐邊緣鋸狀的, 雞冠-形狀的齒; 呼吸孔呈現; 尾部的龍骨脊低的.(參考文獻 5578) 背面灰色的有垂直的深灰色的到黑色的橫帶與出現暗淡的當成魚時的斑點, 腹面白色的.(參考文獻 5578)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Usually found near surface to depths of 140 m (Ref. 26938); in Tahiti from 0-350m (Ref. 89972) . Occurs on or adjacent to continental and insular shelves, frequenting river estuaries, off wharves and jetties in harbors, and in coral atolls and lagoons (Ref. 244). Bottom-associated, sometimes pelagic (Ref. 58302). Also off oceanic islands far from other islands and continental land masses (Ref. 244). Makes excursions in the open ocean, but is not a truly oceanic species (Ref. 244). Nocturnal feeder on other sharks, rays, bony fishes, marine mammals, tortoises, seabirds, sea snakes, squids, gastropods, crustaceans, detritus (Ref. 9997), also including toxic or armored fish species such as Lactoria cornuta or Diodon hystrix, porpoises, whales, sea turtles, cephalopods, domestic animals and humans (Ref. 37816). It also feeds on carrion and garbage, including cans, pieces of metal and burlap bags (Ref. 26938). Second only to Carcharodon carcharias in recorded attacks on humans with at least 27 documented attacks sourced to it . One specimen, reportedly taken off Indo-China, weighed 3,110 kg and measured 740 cm (Ref. 9987). May be kept in an aquaria, but does not last for more than a few months (Ref. 244). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Up to 80 young of 51 to 104 cm are born per litter (Ref. 1602). Valued for its meat, fins, hide and liver oil (Ref. 9997) and also for its jaws and cartilage (Ref. 58048). Often used for fishmeal (Ref. 9997). Utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987). Species from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea has a max size of 750 cm TL (Ref. 47613).

通常發現於表面到深度 140 公尺附近。 (參考文獻 26938) 生活於或者鄰近大陸棚與島嶼棚,在港灣中常出現於河口,外海的碼頭與突堤, 與在珊瑚環礁與潟湖中.(參考文獻 244) 底部-聯合, 有時大洋性的.(參考文獻 58302) 大洋性島嶼外也遠離其他的島與大陸板塊。 (參考文獻 244) 在開放性海域中短距離巡游, 但是不是一個真正的大洋性魚種.(參考文獻 244) 夜行的捕食其他的鯊魚,魟,硬骨魚類,海洋哺乳動物,龜,海鳥,海蛇,烏賊,腹足動物,甲殼動物,碎屑 (參考文獻 9997), 也包括有毒或武裝的魚種例如 角箱魨〔Lactoria cornuta〕 密斑二齒魨〔Diodon hystrix〕 ,鼠海豚,鯨,海龜,頭足類動物,家畜與人類.(參考文獻 37816) 它也吃腐肉與垃圾,包括能, 金屬片與麻布袋.(參考文獻 26938) 僅次於在對人類的攻擊記錄中的 食人鮫〔Carcharodon carcharias〕 以至少, 27個攻擊記錄文件對它來源。 一件標本,據報告採自印度支那外,秤重. 3,110 公斤而且有 740 公分長。 (參考文獻 9987) 可能是保存於一個水族館, 但是不會持續超過個月.(參考文獻 244) 卵胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 高達 80個幼魚 51 對 104 cm 出生每胎.(參考文獻 1602) 重要的是它的肉 , 鰭, 隱藏與肝油.(參考文獻 9997) 時常製成魚漿.(參考文獻 9997) 生鮮使用 , 乾燥鹽醃, 煙燻.與冷凍的.(參考文獻 9987) 種從波斯灣與阿曼海洋有一個最大體長 750 公分TL 。 (參考文獻 47613)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 4805, 6871) with 10-82 in a litter (Ref. 26346). Mating takes place even before gravid females have given birth (Ref. 244). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Gestation period: 13-16 months. Size at birth between 51 (Ref. 244) and 104 (Ref. 9997) cm TL; born at about 51-76 cm TL (Ref. 58048).沿著赤道與溫帶的海洋環球分佈。 西大西洋: 美國麻薩諸塞州到烏拉圭, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海。 東大西洋: 冰島到安哥拉。 印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到夏威夷與大溪地島, 北至日本南部, 南至紐西蘭。 東太平洋: 美國的南加州到祕魯, 包括雷維拉吉哥多島,可可島與加拉巴哥群島。 高度遷移的種, 1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的 (Ref. 244)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 15.8 - 28.9, mean 26.4 (based on 6872 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00247 - 0.00585), b=3.15 (3.03 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=4-11; tmax=50; K=0.18-0.6; Fec=10).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.12 - 0.63, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.