Carcharhinus leucas, Bull shark : fisheries, gamefish
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Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839)

Bull shark
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Carcharhinus leucas   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Carcharhinus leucas
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) 真鯊目 (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks) 白眼鮫科 (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Müller & Henle.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 非產卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 152 m (Ref. 30573), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 55183).   亞熱帶的; 42°N - 39°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55182)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical waters (Ref. 81283): widespread in warm oceans, rivers and lakes (Ref. 4716). Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Argentina (Ref. 58839); eastern Atlantic: Morocco, Senegal to Angola (Ref. 81283, 81623); Indo-Pacific: Kenya and South Africa to India, then, Viet Nam to Australia; southern Baja California, Mexico to Ecuador and possibly occurring in Peru. Africa: in freshwater found in rivers of West Africa from Gambia River to Ogowe River (Ref. 81283) and in the Cuanza in Angola (Ref. 120641). Sympatric with Carcharhinus amboinensis, Glyphis gangeticus.
廣泛分佈於溫暖的海洋,河川與湖泊。 西大西洋: 美國麻薩諸塞州到阿根廷 (參考文獻 58839). 東大西洋: 摩洛哥, 塞內加爾到安哥拉。 印度-西太平洋: 肯亞與南非至印度, 然後, 越南到澳洲。 東太平洋: 墨西哥的下加利福尼亞南部到厄瓜多而且可能地出現在祕魯。 與 高鰭真鯊〔Carcharhinus amboinensis〕 恆河白眼鮫〔Glyphis gangeticus〕 重疊分佈了。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 193.0, range 180 - 230 cm
Max length : 360 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 85726); 400.0 cm TL (female); common length : 260 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9253); 最大體重: 316.5 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 32 年 (Ref. 42004)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. Diagnosis: Carcharhinus leucas is a massive shark with a short, broad and blunt snout, small eyes and triangular saw-edged upper teeth, and lack of interdorsal ridge, characters which are sufficient to distinguish this species (Ref. 26938).
一大的鯊魚有一個短的﹐寬的與鈍的吻又小的眼與三角形的邊緣鋸狀的上顎齒; 而且缺乏間背脊充份區別這種.(參考文獻 26938) 第一背鰭寬而三角形的與少於 3.2 倍第二背鰭鰭的高度; 沒有間背脊.(參考文獻 5578) 淺灰色的上方, 腹面白色的;(參考文獻 5578) 鰭有深色的末端, 尤其在幼魚中.(參考文獻 9997)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

A coastal and freshwater shark inhabiting shallow waters especially in bays, estuaries, rivers, and lakes (Ref. 244). It readily penetrates far up rivers and hypersaline bays and littoral lagoons (Ref. 9997, 44894, 81283). Capable of covering great distances (up to 180 kilometers in 24 hours), moving between fresh and brackish water at random (Ref. 44894). Adults often found near estuaries and freshwater inflows to the sea; young enter rivers and may be found hundreds of km from the sea (Ref. 4967, 44894, 58304). Feeds on bony fishes, other sharks, rays, mantis shrimps, crabs, squid, sea snails, sea urchins, mammalian carrion, sea turtles, and occasionally garbage (Ref. 244, 5578, 44894). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Gives birth to litters of up to 13 young (Ref. 26938, 44894). Size at birth is 56-81 cm TL (Ref. 81623). Sexual maturity is attained after 10-15 years (at a length between 160-200 centimeters) (Ref. 44894). Though not commercially important, this species is a good food fish (Ref. 12484). Utilized fresh, fresh-frozen or smoked for human consumption, fins for soup, hide for leather, liver for oil, and carcass for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Very hardy and lives well in captivity (Ref. 244). This large shark is potentially dangerous to man (Ref. 81283), probably the most dangerous species of tropical shark (Ref. 244), and it is repeatedly implicated in attacks on humans (Ref. 4967, 44894); attacks in fresh water are rare (Ref. 44894).

一隻海岸與淡水的鯊魚在海灣,河口,河與湖中居住於淺水域尤其。 輕易地深入在河川最上游與高鹽度海灣。 (參考文獻 9997) 成魚時常在河口與淡水水域流入海洋的附近發現。 幼魚進入河而且可能被發現於數以百計公里遠距離海洋。 (參考文獻 4967) 吃硬骨魚類,其他的鯊魚,魟,螳螂蝦,螃蟹,烏賊,海洋蝸牛,海膽,哺乳動物腐肉,海龜, 與偶然地垃圾.(參考文獻 244,5578) 非常強韌與生存得很好在繁殖場, 熱帶鯊魚 (參考文獻 244) 的可能最危險種, 它是關係到重複的對人類的攻擊.(參考文獻 4967) 胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 每胎生產向上到 13個幼魚。 (參考文獻 26938) 生鮮使用, 生鮮冷凍或煙燻了供人類消費 , 鰭用於湯, 隱藏用做皮革,肝臟用於製造魚肝油與殘骸用於魚粉.(參考文獻 244)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Viviparpous, with a yolk-sac placenta, 1-13 young in a litter. Size at birth about 60 cm TL (Ref. 9997). In the western North Atlantic off Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, and off South Africa, young are born in late spring or early summer. Off Nicaragua, females may have young throughout the year, with a peak in spring and early summer. Estimated gestation period is 10 to 11 months (Ref. 244). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Females often have courtship scars, but males are rarely seen with fighting scars (Ref. 244).廣泛分佈於溫暖的海洋,河川與湖泊。 西大西洋: 美國麻薩諸塞州到阿根廷 (參考文獻 58839). 東大西洋: 摩洛哥, 塞內加爾到安哥拉。 印度-西太平洋: 肯亞與南非至印度, 然後, 越南到澳洲。 東太平洋: 墨西哥的下加利福尼亞南部到厄瓜多而且可能地出現在祕魯。 與 高鰭真鯊〔Carcharhinus amboinensis〕 恆河白眼鮫〔Glyphis gangeticus〕 重疊分佈了。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.2 - 29, mean 27.5 (based on 2930 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00339 - 0.00537), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (K=0.04-0.15; tm=6-21; tmax=32; Fec=1-13).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.