Torpedo sinuspersici, Variable torpedo ray : gamefish

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Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers, 1831

Variable torpedo ray
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Torpedo sinuspersici   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Torpedo sinuspersici (Variable torpedo ray)
Torpedo sinuspersici
Picture by Ketabi, R. / S. Jamili

Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes(Släkte, Arter) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (hajar och rockor) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina; brackvatten revassocierade; djupintervall 1 - 200 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 31°S, 30°E - 72°E (Ref. 114953)

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf (Ref. 80050), Red Sea eastward to India (Ref. 2712) and southward to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 5578).

Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 2712)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Large ray with a small caudal fin and with papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Bright color pattern of circles and irregular marks, cream or golden on dark red or brown to blackish background dorsally (Ref. 5578).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Found inshore in sandy bottoms, and well offshore from the surf zone down to 200 m (Ref. 5578). Also on or near coral reefs (Ref. 12951, Ref. 114953). Common in shallow sandy areas (Ref. 2712). Feeds on bony fishes (Ref. 12951) and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males mature by 30 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Occurs singly but may form groups during the breeding season (Ref. 12951). Occasionally hooked by anglers, more often seen by divers; can deliver a strong shock (Ref. 2712). Flesh is edible (Ref. 12484). Can survive for hours after being stranded on the beach (Ref. 41394).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). With 9-22 in a litter (Ref. 12951). Form aggregations during the reproductive season (Ref. 41394).

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Medarbetare

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 07 February 2017

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 2712)





Human uses

Sportfisk: ja
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

Ytterligare information

Länder
FAO områden
Ekosystem
Förekomster
Utplanteringar
Stocks
Ekologi
Föda
Födoslag
Födointag
Näringsinnehåll
Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
Age/Size
Tillväxt
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometri
Morfologi
Larver
Larvdynamik
Rekrytering
Abundans
BRUVS
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
Sjukdomar
Behandling
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Medarbetare
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

Verktyg

Special reports

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Internet-källor

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Släkte, Arter | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, sök | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.8 - 28.3, mean 25.5 °C (based on 370 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01077 - 0.02804), b=2.97 (2.83 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Mycket låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mer än 14 år (Fec=9-22).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .