Ctenopharyngodon idella, Grass carp : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)

Grass carp
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Ctenopharyngodon idella
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Squaliobarbinae
Etymology: Ctenopharyngodon: Greek, kteis, ktenos = comb + Greek, pharyngx = pharynx + greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335);  idella: Cteno=comb; pharynx=throat; odon=tooth (in reference to its comblike pharyngeal teeth); and idella: presumably derived from the Greek idios, distinctive or peculiar (Ref. 79012).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 30 m (Ref. 6898).   溫帶; 0°C - 35°C (Ref. 52059); 50°N - 23°N (Ref. 48)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Asia: Eastern China and Russia (Ref. 48) in eastern Siberia, Amur River system (Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Persists only in Europe by stocking (Ref. 59043). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis (synonym of B. acheilognathi) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
亞洲與前蘇聯: 中國與西伯利亞東部.(阿穆爾河流域, 參考文獻 1441) 廣泛地在全世界傳送。 (參考文獻 7248) 引入時常一併帶來寄生的線蟲類的 Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis 。 (參考文獻 12217) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - 79.2 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30578); common length : 10.7 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 35840); 最大体重: 45.0 kg (Ref. 7248); 最大年龄: 21 年 (Ref. 48)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 3; 背的软条 (总数): 7-8; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 7 - 11. No barbels. Snout very short, its length less than or equal to eye diameter. Postorbital length more than half head length (Ref. 4967). 18 soft rays for caudal fin (Ref. 40476). Diagnosed from rather similar species Mylopharyngodon piceus by having the following characters: body olive to brassy green above, silvery white to yellow below; body cylindrical; pharyngeal teeth laterally compressed, serrated, with a groove along grinding surface, usually in two rows, 2,5-4,2 (Ref. 59043).
没有触须。 吻非常短的, 它的长度少于或者等于眼直径。 眼眶后的长度超过一半的头长.(参考文献 4967) 为尾鳍的 18个软鳍条.(参考文献 40476)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers (Ref. 5723), preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures from 0° to 38°C, and salinities to as much as 10 ppt and oxygen levels down to 0.5 ppm. Feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged grasses; takes also detritus, insects and other invertebrates. One of the world's most important aquaculture species and also used for weed control in rivers, fish ponds and reservoirs (Ref. 9987). Spawn on riverbeds with very strong current (Ref. 30578). Utilized also fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Considered as a pest in most countries because of the damages made to submerged vegetation (Ref. 43281).

出现于湖,池塘,大河 (参考文献 5723) 的深潭与滞水区, 偏爱大而缓慢流动的或静止的水体且有植物生长的地方。 宽容的从 0个 ° 到 38 °C 的宽范围温度 , 与高达 10个 ppt 的盐度与溶氧量向下至 0.5个 ppm。 吃较高的水生植物与水下的草; 也吃碎屑, 昆虫与其他的无脊椎动物。 世界的最重要养殖鱼种之一以及在河,鱼池塘与水库中用来了杂草控制.(参考文献 9987) 产卵于河床水流非常强烈的地方.(参考文献 30578) 也利用生鲜地而且清蒸了, 油锅炸的,火烤的与烧烤的.(参考文献 9987) 被当作在大多数的国家一个有害之物了由于制造水中植物的损害.(参考文献 43281)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawns in gravel bottomed areas of rivers (Ref. 48). Eggs are pelagic and hatch while drifting downstream in 2-3 days (Ref. 59043). 亞洲與前蘇聯: 中國與西伯利亞東部.(阿穆爾河流域, 參考文獻 1441) 廣泛地在全世界傳送。 (參考文獻 7248) 引入時常一併帶來寄生的線蟲類的 Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis 。 (參考文獻 12217) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884). FAO Fish. Synop. No.135, 86 p. (Ref. 48)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  可能有害的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01040 - 0.01750), b=2.98 (2.90 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.13-0.19; tm=2-10; tmax=21; Fec=50,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.