Ctenopharyngodon idella, Grass carp : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)

Grass carp
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Squaliobarbinae
Etymology: Ctenopharyngodon: Greek, kteis, ktenos = comb + Greek, pharyngx = pharynx + greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335);  idella: Cteno=comb; pharynx=throat; odon=tooth (in reference to its comblike pharyngeal teeth); and idella: presumably derived from the Greek idios, distinctive or peculiar (Ref. 79012).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 30 m (Ref. 6898).   溫帶; 0°C - 35°C (Ref. 52059); 50°N - 23°N (Ref. 48)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Asia: Eastern China and Russia (Ref. 48) in eastern Siberia, Amur River system (Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Persists only in Europe by stocking (Ref. 59043). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis (synonym of B. acheilognathi) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
亞洲: 中國到西伯利亞東部.(阿穆爾河流域, 參考文獻 1441) 廣泛地在全世界傳送。 (參考文獻 7248) 引入時常一併帶來寄生的線蟲類的 Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis 。 (參考文獻 12217) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - 79.2 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); common length : 10.7 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35840); 最大體重: 45.0 kg (Ref. 7248); 最大年齡: 21 年 (Ref. 48)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-8; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 7 - 11. No barbels. Snout very short, its length less than or equal to eye diameter. Postorbital length more than half head length (Ref. 4967). 18 soft rays for caudal fin (Ref. 40476). Diagnosed from rather similar species Mylopharyngodon piceus by having the following characters: body olive to brassy green above, silvery white to yellow below; body cylindrical; pharyngeal teeth laterally compressed, serrated, with a groove along grinding surface, usually in two rows, 2,5-4,2 (Ref. 59043).
沒有觸鬚。 吻非常短的, 它的長度少於或者等於眼直徑。 眼眶後的長度超過一半的頭長.(參考文獻 4967) 為尾鰭的 18個軟鰭條.(參考文獻 40476)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers (Ref. 5723), preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures from 0° to 38°C, and salinities to as much as 10 ppt and oxygen levels down to 0.5 ppm. Feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged grasses; takes also detritus, insects and other invertebrates. One of the world's most important aquaculture species and also used for weed control in rivers, fish ponds and reservoirs (Ref. 9987). Spawn on riverbeds with very strong current (Ref. 30578). Utilized also fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Considered as a pest in most countries because of the damages made to submerged vegetation (Ref. 43281).

出現於湖,池塘,大河 (參考文獻 5723) 的深潭與滯水區, 偏愛大而緩慢流動的或靜止的水體且有植物生長的地方。 寬容的從 0個 ° 到 38 °C 的寬範圍溫度 , 與高達 10個 ppt 的鹽度與溶氧量向下至 0.5個 ppm。 吃較高的水生植物與水下的草; 也吃碎屑, 昆蟲與其他的無脊椎動物。 世界的最重要養殖魚種之一以及在河,魚池塘與水庫中用來了雜草控制.(參考文獻 9987) 產卵於河床水流非常強烈的地方.(參考文獻 30578) 也利用生鮮地而且清蒸了, 油鍋炸的﹐火烤的與燒烤的.(參考文獻 9987) 被當作在大多數的國家一個有害之物了由於製造水中植物的損害.(參考文獻 43281)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns in gravel bottomed areas of rivers (Ref. 48). Eggs are pelagic and hatch while drifting downstream in 2-3 days (Ref. 59043). 亞洲: 中國到西伯利亞東部.(阿穆爾河流域, 參考文獻 1441) 廣泛地在全世界傳送。 (參考文獻 7248) 引入時常一併帶來寄生的線蟲類的 Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis 。 (參考文獻 12217) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884). FAO Fish. Synop. No.135, 86 p. (Ref. 48)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)


CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource |



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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01040 - 0.01750), b=2.98 (2.90 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.13-0.19; tm=2-10; tmax=21; Fec=50,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.