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Bathytoshia brevicaudata  (Hutton, 1875)

Short-tail stingray
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Image of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Short-tail stingray)
Bathytoshia brevicaudata
Picture by Danna, P.

Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (hajar och rockor) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)

Miljö / Klimat / Range Ekologi

; marina; brackvatten bottenlevande; djupintervall 0 - 476 m (Ref. 5578), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 89422).   Temperate

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: southern Mozambique and South Africa (Ref. 5578), New Zealand, and temperate and subtropical coasts of Australia. Accounts of this species from Thailand may be of the closely related Dasyatis matsubarai.

Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 430 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 5578); common length : 125 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 9258)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 0; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 0. A huge, thick, plain stingray with a bluntly angular snout, and a pectoral disc with round tips; tail thick-based and shorter than body (longer in young) with a small upper and a long lower caudal finfold, the lower not reaching the tail tip; disc smooth except for large, slender thorn on tail in front of stings; often 2 stings, the front one small, the rear one huge (Ref. 5578). Grey-brown or bluish-grey dorsally with a row small, pale blue spots at each pectoral fin base; white ventrally; tail plain (Ref. 5578). The caudal fin is replaced by a long whip-like tail (Ref. 26346). Tail shorter than or the same length as the disc (Ref. 26346).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Occurs offshore, on the outer shelf and uppermost slope; sometimes close inshore (Ref. 5578), in very shallow ( 0 m) depths (Ref. 26346). Found on sandy bottoms, in bays, harbors, and near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Often in aggregations (Ref. 12951). Feeds on fishes, bivalves, squid, and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Reputed to be the largest stingray in the world weighing more than 350,000 g (Ref. 6871). Frequently raises its tail in a scorpion-like fashion when approached, but is considered more as inquisitive rather than aggressive (Ref. 6871). The barbed tail however can inflict a severe or potentially fatal wound (Ref. 6871). Sometimes caught by anglers (Ref. 5578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). During courtship, the male will hold onto the pectoral margin of a female (sometimes for hours) as she swims through the water. The male flips under the female and inserts a clasper. The male beats his tail from side to side to move the clasper backward and forward in the cloca. Copulation lasts 3-5 minutes. Males have been observed to nudge the female's abdomen during parturition. Viviparous, young born at about 36 cm WD (Ref. 6871).

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Medarbetare

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4716)




Human uses

Sportfisk: ja
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Ytterligare information

Länder
FAO områden
Ekosystem
Förekomster
Utplanteringar
Stocks
Ekologi
Föda
Födoslag
Födointag
Näringsinnehåll
Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
Age/Size
Tillväxt
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometri
Morfologi
Larver
Larvdynamik
Rekrytering
Abundans
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
Sjukdomar
Behandling
Mass conversion
Medarbetare
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

Verktyg

Special reports

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Internet-källor

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, sök) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.6 - 28.5, mean 24.1 (based on 2002 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00306 - 0.01967), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 69278):  Mycket låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mer än 14 år ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .