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Bathytoshia brevicaudata  (Hutton, 1875)

Short-tail stingray
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Bathytoshia brevicaudata
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) 鰩目 (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) 土魟科 (Stingrays)

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 深度上下限 0 - 476 m (Ref. 5578), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 89422).   溫帶

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: southern Mozambique and South Africa (Ref. 5578), New Zealand, and temperate and subtropical coasts of Australia. Accounts of this species from Thailand may be of the closely related Dasyatis matsubarai.
印度-西太平洋: 莫三比克南部與南非 (參考文獻 5578) ,紐西蘭與溫帶與亞熱帶的澳洲海岸。 來自泰國的這種的報告可能是 松原魟〔Dasyatis matsubarai〕 的近親。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 430 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5578); common length : 125 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9258)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0. A huge, thick, plain stingray with a bluntly angular snout, and a pectoral disc with round tips; tail thick-based and shorter than body (longer in young) with a small upper and a long lower caudal finfold, the lower not reaching the tail tip; disc smooth except for large, slender thorn on tail in front of stings; often 2 stings, the front one small, the rear one huge (Ref. 5578). Grey-brown or bluish-grey dorsally with a row small, pale blue spots at each pectoral fin base; white ventrally; tail plain (Ref. 5578). The caudal fin is replaced by a long whip-like tail (Ref. 26346). Tail shorter than or the same length as the disc (Ref. 26346).
一個極大的﹐厚的﹐和單色的魟具有一個鈍有角的吻,而且一個胸盤有圓的頂端; 尾部基底厚而短於身體 (更長的當幼魚時) 具有一個小的上面與一個長的下尾部的鰭褶, 下面的不達到尾部頂端; 體盤平滑的在刺之前除了在尾部的大又細長的刺; 時常 2個刺, 一個在前面的小, 一個後面的極大.(參考文獻 5578) 灰褐色或藍灰色的背面在每個胸鰭基底具有一列小又藍灰色斑點; 腹側白色的; 尾部平原.(參考文獻 5578) 尾鰭被一個長的鞭狀尾部取代。 (參考文獻 26346) 尾部短於或如同體盤一般的長度.(參考文獻 26346)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs offshore, on the outer shelf and uppermost slope; sometimes close inshore (Ref. 5578), in very shallow ( 0 m) depths (Ref. 26346). Found on sandy bottoms, in bays, harbors, and near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Often in aggregations (Ref. 12951). Feeds on fishes, bivalves, squid, and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Reputed to be the largest stingray in the world weighing more than 350,000 g (Ref. 6871). Frequently raises its tail in a scorpion-like fashion when approached, but is considered more as inquisitive rather than aggressive (Ref. 6871). The barbed tail however can inflict a severe or potentially fatal wound (Ref. 6871). Sometimes caught by anglers (Ref. 5578).

生存外海, 在外部的大陸棚與最上面的斜坡上; 有時近岸.(參考文獻 5578) 在海灣,港灣與鄰近岩礁中, 棲息於砂質底部了。 (參考文獻 12951) 常聚集成群。 (參考文獻 12951) 吃魚,二枚貝,烏賊與甲殼動物。 (參考文獻 12951) 卵胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 相傳是最大的魟世界上秤重超過 350,000 g 。 (參考文獻 6871) 時常在一個像蠍子一樣當被接近時中舉起它的尾部, 但是一般認為更多當好奇的而不是侵略性.(參考文獻 6871) 有刺的尾部然而能施放嚴重或可能致命的創傷。 (參考文獻 6871) 有時被垂釣者捕獲了。 (參考文獻 5578) 最小深度記錄自了參考文獻 26346.

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). During courtship, the male will hold onto the pectoral margin of a female (sometimes for hours) as she swims through the water. The male flips under the female and inserts a clasper. The male beats his tail from side to side to move the clasper backward and forward in the cloca. Copulation lasts 3-5 minutes. Males have been observed to nudge the female's abdomen during parturition. Viviparous, young born at about 36 cm WD (Ref. 6871).印度-西太平洋: 莫三比克南部與南非 (參考文獻 5578) ,紐西蘭與溫帶與亞熱帶的澳洲海岸。 來自泰國的這種的報告可能是 松原魟〔Dasyatis matsubarai〕 的近親。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有毒的 (Ref. 4716)




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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.6 - 28.5, mean 24.1 (based on 2002 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00306 - 0.01967), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 ().
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .