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Bathytoshia brevicaudata  (Hutton, 1875)

Short-tail stingray
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Image of Bathytoshia brevicaudata (Short-tail stingray)
Bathytoshia brevicaudata
Picture by Danna, P.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; payau dasar (demersal); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 476 m (Ref. 5578), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 89422).   Temperate

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: southern Mozambique and South Africa (Ref. 5578), New Zealand, and temperate and subtropical coasts of Australia. Accounts of this species from Thailand may be of the closely related Dasyatis matsubarai.

Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 430 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 5578); common length : 125 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 9258)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 0. A huge, thick, plain stingray with a bluntly angular snout, and a pectoral disc with round tips; tail thick-based and shorter than body (longer in young) with a small upper and a long lower caudal finfold, the lower not reaching the tail tip; disc smooth except for large, slender thorn on tail in front of stings; often 2 stings, the front one small, the rear one huge (Ref. 5578). Grey-brown or bluish-grey dorsally with a row small, pale blue spots at each pectoral fin base; white ventrally; tail plain (Ref. 5578). The caudal fin is replaced by a long whip-like tail (Ref. 26346). Tail shorter than or the same length as the disc (Ref. 26346).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Occurs offshore, on the outer shelf and uppermost slope; sometimes close inshore (Ref. 5578), in very shallow ( 0 m) depths (Ref. 26346). Found on sandy bottoms, in bays, harbors, and near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Often in aggregations (Ref. 12951). Feeds on fishes, bivalves, squid, and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Reputed to be the largest stingray in the world weighing more than 350,000 g (Ref. 6871). Frequently raises its tail in a scorpion-like fashion when approached, but is considered more as inquisitive rather than aggressive (Ref. 6871). The barbed tail however can inflict a severe or potentially fatal wound (Ref. 6871). Sometimes caught by anglers (Ref. 5578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). During courtship, the male will hold onto the pectoral margin of a female (sometimes for hours) as she swims through the water. The male flips under the female and inserts a clasper. The male beats his tail from side to side to move the clasper backward and forward in the cloca. Copulation lasts 3-5 minutes. Males have been observed to nudge the female's abdomen during parturition. Viviparous, young born at about 36 cm WD (Ref. 6871).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : McEachran, John | mitra

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Venomous (Ref. 4716)




penggunaan manusia

Ikan buruan: ya
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informasi lanjut

Negara-negara
Daerah-daerah FAO
Ecosystems
Kemunculan
Introduksi
Stocks
Ekologi
Makanan
Bahan makanan
Konsumsi makanan
Jatah
Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genom, Nukleotida) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(pergi, Cari) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.6 - 28.5, mean 24.1 (based on 2002 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00476 - 0.02768), b=3.04 (2.84 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun ().
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .