Himantura uarnak, Honeycomb stingray : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Himantura uarnak (Gmelin, 1789)

Honeycomb stingray
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Himantura uarnak   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Himantura uarnak (Honeycomb stingray)
Himantura uarnak
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Urogymninae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Gmelin.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 礁区鱼类; 非产卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016).   亞熱帶的; 23°C - 26°C (Ref. 12468); 38°N - 37°S, 34°E - 149°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050); Red Sea (and eastern Mediterranean via Suez Canal) to southern Africa and French Polynesia, north to Taiwan, south to Australia. Also in the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Collected from the estuary of the River Ganges (Ref. 33178). This name has been used for a number of similar spotted species (Ref. 6871). Probably a species complex (Ref. 35766). Its identity has been confused in many publications and Micronesian specimens should be re-examined (Ref. 37816).
印度-西太平洋: 紅海 (與地中海東部經由蘇伊士運河) 到非洲南部與法屬玻里尼西亞,北至台灣, 南至澳洲。 也在阿拉弗拉海中.(參考文獻 9819) 採集自恒河的河口了。 (參考文獻 33178) 這一個名稱已經被用來一些相似的有斑點的種。 (參考文獻 6871) 可能一個複合種.(參考文獻 35766) 它的鑑定已經在許多出版文獻中被混淆,而且麥克羅尼西亞的標本應該被重新檢視。 (參考文獻 37816)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 82 - 84 cm
Max length : 200 cm WD 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3263); common length : 45.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5450); 最大体重: 120.0 kg (Ref. 3263)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. Huge stingray with conspicuous dark spots on a light brown disc; spots well-spaced in young but crowded to form reticulated pattern in adult; white ventrally; tail marked with bands of black and white; snout sharply pointed; disc with narrowly rounded outer corners, and tail long, slender and nearly three times body length when intact, with no caudal finfolds; disc without thorns but with band of flat denticles along midback (in adults); usually 1 medium-sized sting on tail (Ref. 5578).
极大的 在一个淡褐色体盘上有明显的深色斑点; 斑点有些间隔当幼鱼时但是在成鱼中汇集形成网状的图案; 腹侧白色的; 尾部有显着的黑白条纹了; 吻非常尖的; 体盘有狭窄圆形的外角, 与尾部长的, 细长的而且几乎三倍于体长当完整无缺的时候, 没有尾鳍的鳍褶; 体盘没有刺但是有平坦细齿的条纹沿着背部中央;(当成鱼时) 通常在尾部上的 1个中等大小的刺.(参考文献 5578)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Common off sandy beaches and in shallow estuaries and lagoons; also found in sandy areas of coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Also offshore down to 50 m depth (Ref. 5578). May enter fresh water (Ref. 5578). Feeds on small fishes, bivalves, crabs, shrimps, worms (Ref. 3263) and jellyfishes (Ref. 37816). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl, longline and beach seine fisheries (Ref.58048). Popular angling fish (Ref. 3263). Not esteemed as a food fish (Ref. 3263). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Tail is used as It is parasitised by the monogeneans Dendromonocotyle colorni and Dendromonocotyle ukuthena on the dorsal skin surface (Ref. 124058).

普遍的沙滩外与在水浅的河口与舄湖中; 也发现于珊瑚礁的沙地。 (参考文献 9710) 也外海向下至 50 公尺深.(参考文献 5578) 可能进入淡水。 (参考文献 5578) 吃小鱼,二枚贝,螃蟹,虾,蠕虫 (参考文献 3263) 与水母。 (参考文献 37816) 卵胎生的.(参考文献 50449) 受欢迎的垂钓鱼种.(参考文献 3263) 不赞赏作为一个食用鱼.(参考文献 3263) 被用于中药材了。 (参考文献 12166) 尾部被制成一个装饰的项目。 (参考文献 27550)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Bears 3 to 5 young in the summer (Ref. 5578). Size at birth about 21 (Ref.58048) - 28 cm WD (Ref. 6871).印度-西太平洋: 紅海 (與地中海東部經由蘇伊士運河) 到非洲南部與法屬玻里尼西亞,北至台灣, 南至澳洲。 也在阿拉弗拉海中.(參考文獻 9819) 採集自恒河的河口了。 (參考文獻 33178) 這一個名稱已經被用來一些相似的有斑點的種。 (參考文獻 6871) 可能一個複合種.(參考文獻 35766) 它的鑑定已經在許多出版文獻中被混淆,而且麥克羅尼西亞的標本應該被重新檢視。 (參考文獻 37816)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

Fricke, R., 1999. Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez): an annotated checklist, with descriptions of new species. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Theses Zoologicae, Vol. 31:759 p. (Ref. 33390)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  有毒的 (Ref. 27550)





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 商业性
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.2 - 28.6, mean 27.8 °C (based on 334 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00840 - 0.03434), b=3.17 (2.98 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (Fec=3-5).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 8.65 [1.17, 52.23] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.732 [0.122, 2.848] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.2 [18.4, 23.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.070, 0.829] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.8 [3.1, 74.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.2 [3.3, 121.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.679 [0.168, 2.818] mg/100g (wet weight);