Himantura uarnak, Honeycomb stingray : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Himantura uarnak (Gmelin, 1789)

Honeycomb stingray
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Himantura uarnak   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Himantura uarnak (Honeycomb stingray)
Himantura uarnak
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) 鰩目 (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) 土魟科 (Stingrays) > Urogymninae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Gmelin.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 非產卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016).   亞熱帶的; 23°C - 26°C (Ref. 12468); 38°N - 37°S, 34°E - 149°W

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050); Red Sea (and eastern Mediterranean via Suez Canal) to southern Africa and French Polynesia, north to Taiwan, south to Australia. Also in the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Collected from the estuary of the River Ganges (Ref. 33178). This name has been used for a number of similar spotted species (Ref. 6871). Probably a species complex (Ref. 35766). Its identity has been confused in many publications and Micronesian specimens should be re-examined (Ref. 37816).
印度-西太平洋: 紅海 (與地中海東部經由蘇伊士運河) 到非洲南部與法屬玻里尼西亞,北至台灣, 南至澳洲。 也在阿拉弗拉海中.(參考文獻 9819) 採集自恒河的河口了。 (參考文獻 33178) 這一個名稱已經被用來一些相似的有斑點的種。 (參考文獻 6871) 可能一個複合種.(參考文獻 35766) 它的鑑定已經在許多出版文獻中被混淆,而且麥克羅尼西亞的標本應該被重新檢視。 (參考文獻 37816)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 82 - 84 cm
Max length : 200 cm WD 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3263); common length : 45.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5450); 最大體重: 120.0 kg (Ref. 3263)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. Huge stingray with conspicuous dark spots on a light brown disc; spots well-spaced in young but crowded to form reticulated pattern in adult; white ventrally; tail marked with bands of black and white; snout sharply pointed; disc with narrowly rounded outer corners, and tail long, slender and nearly three times body length when intact, with no caudal finfolds; disc without thorns but with band of flat denticles along midback (in adults); usually 1 medium-sized sting on tail (Ref. 5578).
極大的魟在一個淡褐色體盤上有明顯的深色斑點; 斑點有些間隔當幼魚時但是在成魚中匯集形成網狀的圖案; 腹側白色的; 尾部有顯著的黑白條紋了; 吻非常尖的; 體盤有狹窄圓形的外角, 與尾部長的, 細長的而且幾乎三倍於體長當完整無缺的時候, 沒有尾鰭的鰭褶; 體盤沒有刺但是有平坦細齒的條紋沿著背部中央;(當成魚時) 通常在尾部上的 1個中等大小的刺.(參考文獻 5578)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Common off sandy beaches and in shallow estuaries and lagoons; also found in sandy areas of coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Also offshore down to 50 m depth (Ref. 5578). May enter fresh water (Ref. 5578). Feeds on small fishes, bivalves, crabs, shrimps, worms (Ref. 3263) and jellyfishes (Ref. 37816). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl, longline and beach seine fisheries (Ref.58048). Popular angling fish (Ref. 3263). Not esteemed as a food fish (Ref. 3263). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Tail is used as It is parasitised by the monogeneans Dendromonocotyle colorni and Dendromonocotyle ukuthena on the dorsal skin surface (Ref. 124058).

普遍的沙灘外與在水淺的河口與潟湖中; 也發現於珊瑚礁的沙地。 (參考文獻 9710) 也外海向下至 50 公尺深.(參考文獻 5578) 可能進入淡水。 (參考文獻 5578) 吃小魚,二枚貝,螃蟹,蝦,蠕蟲 (參考文獻 3263) 與水母。 (參考文獻 37816) 卵胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 受歡迎的垂釣魚種.(參考文獻 3263) 不讚賞作為一個食用魚.(參考文獻 3263) 被用於中藥材了。 (參考文獻 12166)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Bears 3 to 5 young in the summer (Ref. 5578). Size at birth about 21 (Ref.58048) - 28 cm WD (Ref. 6871).印度-西太平洋: 紅海 (與地中海東部經由蘇伊士運河) 到非洲南部與法屬玻里尼西亞,北至台灣, 南至澳洲。 也在阿拉弗拉海中.(參考文獻 9819) 採集自恒河的河口了。 (參考文獻 33178) 這一個名稱已經被用來一些相似的有斑點的種。 (參考文獻 6871) 可能一個複合種.(參考文獻 35766) 它的鑑定已經在許多出版文獻中被混淆,而且麥克羅尼西亞的標本應該被重新檢視。 (參考文獻 37816)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

Fricke, R., 1999. Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez): an annotated checklist, with descriptions of new species. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Theses Zoologicae, Vol. 31:759 p. (Ref. 33390)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有毒的 (Ref. 27550)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 商業性
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.2 - 28.6, mean 27.8 °C (based on 334 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00840 - 0.03434), b=3.17 (2.98 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (Fec=3-5).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 8.65 [1.17, 52.23] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.732 [0.122, 2.848] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.2 [18.4, 23.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.070, 0.829] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.8 [3.1, 74.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.2 [3.3, 121.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.679 [0.168, 2.818] mg/100g (wet weight);