分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海; 汽水性の 底生の; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 150 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 6302). Subtropical; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 67°N - 17°N, 17°W - 37°E (Ref. 54889)
Eastern Atlantic: southward from Trondheim Fjord (including North Sea and western Baltic) and Mediterranean Sea (including Sea of Marmara, Bosporus and southwestern Black Sea) (Ref. 4710). Elsewhere, southward to Senegal (Ref. 4710), including Cape Verde (Ref. 5304).
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 4710); common length : 35.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 5504); 最大公表体重: 3.0 kg (Ref. 5504); 最大記録サイズ: 26 年 (Ref. 32766)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 69-97; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 53 - 80; 脊つい: 46 - 52. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oval, flat and asymmetric; eyes located on right side of head, except in reversed individuals (Ref. 57416). Upper eye less than its own diameter from dorsal profile of head (Ref. 4710). Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged (Ref. 4710, 57416), but surrounded by small rim (Ref. 57416). Its distance from front margin of head 1.5-1.9x in its distance from cleft of mouth; anterior nostril on eyed side with backward-pointing tube not or only barely reaching front border of lower eye (Ref. 4710). Preopercle covered by skin and opercle entirely scaled; mouth arched and inferior; dorsal and anal fins lacking spinous rays and united to caudal fin by well-developed membrane, but caudal peduncle distinct; dorsal fin originating on horizontal axis through upper eye; pectoral fin on eyed side asymmetrical, with 7-10 rays, and on blind side slightly shorter; straight part of lateral line visible, supratemporal part slightly arched above eyes; body covered with rectangular ctenoid scales (Ref. 57416).
Adults occur at a temperature range of 8.0-24.0°C (Ref. 4944). Usually solitary. They burrow into sandy and muddy bottoms. Retreat to deeper water during winter (Ref. 9988). Juveniles are found during the first 2 to 3 years in coastal nurseries (bays and nurseries) before migrating to deeper waters (Ref. 92286). Adults feed on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans at night. Waden sea is the most important nursery area. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Recruitment is very variable. Frequently found pelagically during spawning migrations (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh and frozen; utilized steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawning takes place in shallow coastal waters at temperatures of 6 - 12°C. Reproduction starts after 3-5 years of age, when 25-30cm size is reached. Spawning happens mainly during the months of February-May (for example, off the coasts of Galicia), although in warmer areas
(such as the Mediterranean), it can occur at the beginning of the winter. Incubation lasts about 5 days (at 1 2°) and larval phase 35 days (at 18°C).
Desoutter, M., 1992. Soleidae. p. 860-865. In C. Levêque, D. Paugy, and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest Tome 2. Faune Tropicale n° 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique and O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, France, 902. (Ref. 7395)
水産業: 高い商業の; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい; 水族館・水槽: 公共の水族館
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9 - 20, mean 11.4 °C (based on 678 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00663 - 0.00869), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.9 (3.2 - 4.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 32 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.21-0.33; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=100,000).
Prior r = 0.51, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.76, Based on 34 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 90.1 [39.9, 230.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.43 [0.71, 2.71] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.9, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.452 [0.213, 0.927] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.8 [4.8, 53.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.42 [1.25, 23.04] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.63 [0.30, 1.59] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.