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Solea solea  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common sole
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Image of Solea solea (Common sole)
Solea solea
Picture by Canosa, C. & B.F. Souto

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) 鰈形目 (Flatfishes) > Soleidae (Soles) 鰨科 (Soles)
Etymology: Solea: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe); refered to the flat shape of the fish (Ref. 45335).

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 150 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 6302).   亞熱帶的; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 67°N - 17°N, 17°W - 37°E (Ref. 54889)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southward from Trondheim Fjord (including North Sea and western Baltic) and Mediterranean Sea (including Sea of Marmara, Bosporus and southwestern Black Sea) (Ref. 4710). Elsewhere, southward to Senegal (Ref. 4710), including Cape Verde (Ref. 5304).
東大西洋: 來自特倫汗峽灣 (包括北海與波羅海西部) 與地中海 (包括馬爾馬拉海, 博斯普魯斯海峽與西南方的黑海) 的南方. 其他地方,向南至塞內加爾, 包括維德角。 (參考文獻 5304)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4710); common length : 35.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5504); 最大體重: 3.0 kg (Ref. 5504); 最大年齡: 26 年 (Ref. 32766)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 69-97; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 53 - 80; 脊椎骨: 46 - 52. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oval, flat and asymmetric; eyes located on right side of head, except in reversed individuals (Ref. 57416). Upper eye less than its own diameter from dorsal profile of head (Ref. 4710). Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged (Ref. 4710, 57416), but surrounded by small rim (Ref. 57416). Its distance from front margin of head 1.5-1.9x in its distance from cleft of mouth; anterior nostril on eyed side with backward-pointing tube not or only barely reaching front border of lower eye (Ref. 4710). Preopercle covered by skin and opercle entirely scaled; mouth arched and inferior; dorsal and anal fins lacking spinous rays and united to caudal fin by well-developed membrane, but caudal peduncle distinct; dorsal fin originating on horizontal axis through upper eye; pectoral fin on eyed side asymmetrical, with 7-10 rays, and on blind side slightly shorter; straight part of lateral line visible, supratemporal part slightly arched above eyes; body covered with rectangular ctenoid scales (Ref. 57416).
卵形的軀幹, 頭部圓的。 眼睛上方少於來自頭部的背面輪廓的它自己的直徑。 在沒有眼睛的一邊上的前鼻孔不增大了。 背鰭起點在頭部的上面輪廓。 眼旁的淺灰褐色到紅褐色的, 有大的與擴散的深色斑點。 在眼側邊上的胸鰭在鰭的後端具有一個黑色的斑塊。 尾鰭的後部部份通常比休息顏色更深。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur at a temperature range of 8.0-24.0°C (Ref. 4944). Usually solitary. They burrow into sandy and muddy bottoms. Retreat to deeper water during winter (Ref. 9988). Juveniles are found during the first 2 to 3 years in coastal nurseries (bays and nurseries) before migrating to deeper waters (Ref. 92286). Adults feed on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans at night. Waden sea is the most important nursery area. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Recruitment is very variable. Frequently found pelagically during spawning migrations (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh and frozen; utilized steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

成魚在一個 8.0-24.0 °C 的溫差出現。 (參考文獻 4944) 通常獨居性的。 他們掘穴進入沙泥底裡面。 在冬天期間撤退到較深的水域。 (參考文獻 9988) 捕食蠕蟲,軟體動物與小型甲殼動物在晚上。 Waden 海洋是最重要的育幼區域。 分批產卵者.(參考文獻 51846) 入添非常可變。 時常大洋性地在生殖迴游的時候發現。 (參考文獻 35388) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍; 利用蒸,油炸, 火烤, 微波而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawning takes place in shallow coastal waters at temperatures of 6 - 12°C. Reproduction starts after 3-5 years of age, when 25-30cm size is reached. Spawning happens mainly during the months of February-May (for example, off the coasts of Galicia), although in warmer areas (such as the Mediterranean), it can occur at the beginning of the winter. Incubation lasts about 5 days (at 1 2°) and larval phase 35 days (at 18°C). 東大西洋: 來自特倫汗峽灣 (包括北海與波羅海西部) 與地中海 (包括馬爾馬拉海, 博斯普魯斯海峽與西南方的黑海) 的南方. 其他地方,向南至塞內加爾, 包括維德角。 (參考文獻 5304)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Desoutter, M., 1992. Soleidae. p. 860-865. In C. Levêque, D. Paugy, and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest Tome 2. Faune Tropicale n° 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique and O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, France, 902. (Ref. 7395)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的




人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9 - 20, mean 11.4 (based on 678 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00645 - 0.00934), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.21-0.33; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=100,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 1.02, log(r) = -0.78, SD log(r) = 0.4, Based on: 2 M, 26 K, 17 tgen, 2 tmax, 13 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.