Solea solea, Common sole : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common sole
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Solea solea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Solea solea (Common sole)
Solea solea
Picture by Canosa, C. & B.F. Souto

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes(Marga, Jenis) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Soleidae (Soles)
Etymology: Solea: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe); refered to the flat shape of the fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; payau dasar (demersal); oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman - 150 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 6302).   Subtropical; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 67°N - 17°N, 17°W - 37°E (Ref. 54889)

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southward from Trondheim Fjord (including North Sea and western Baltic) and Mediterranean Sea (including Sea of Marmara, Bosporus and southwestern Black Sea) (Ref. 4710). Elsewhere, southward to Senegal (Ref. 4710), including Cape Verde (Ref. 5304).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 4710); common length : 35.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 5504); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 3.0 kg (Ref. 5504); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 26 Tahun (Ref. 32766)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 69-97; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 53 - 80; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 46 - 52. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oval, flat and asymmetric; eyes located on right side of head, except in reversed individuals (Ref. 57416). Upper eye less than its own diameter from dorsal profile of head (Ref. 4710). Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged (Ref. 4710, 57416), but surrounded by small rim (Ref. 57416). Its distance from front margin of head 1.5-1.9x in its distance from cleft of mouth; anterior nostril on eyed side with backward-pointing tube not or only barely reaching front border of lower eye (Ref. 4710). Preopercle covered by skin and opercle entirely scaled; mouth arched and inferior; dorsal and anal fins lacking spinous rays and united to caudal fin by well-developed membrane, but caudal peduncle distinct; dorsal fin originating on horizontal axis through upper eye; pectoral fin on eyed side asymmetrical, with 7-10 rays, and on blind side slightly shorter; straight part of lateral line visible, supratemporal part slightly arched above eyes; body covered with rectangular ctenoid scales (Ref. 57416).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Adults occur at a temperature range of 8.0-24.0°C (Ref. 4944). Usually solitary. They burrow into sandy and muddy bottoms. Retreat to deeper water during winter (Ref. 9988). Juveniles are found during the first 2 to 3 years in coastal nurseries (bays and nurseries) before migrating to deeper waters (Ref. 92286). Adults feed on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans at night. Waden sea is the most important nursery area. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Recruitment is very variable. Frequently found pelagically during spawning migrations (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh and frozen; utilized steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Spawning takes place in shallow coastal waters at temperatures of 6 - 12°C. Reproduction starts after 3-5 years of age, when 25-30cm size is reached. Spawning happens mainly during the months of February-May (for example, off the coasts of Galicia), although in warmer areas (such as the Mediterranean), it can occur at the beginning of the winter. Incubation lasts about 5 days (at 1 2°) and larval phase 35 days (at 18°C).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Desoutter, M., 1992. Soleidae. p. 860-865. In C. Levêque, D. Paugy, and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest Tome 2. Faune Tropicale n° 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique and O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, France, 902. (Ref. 7395)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 124695)

  kekurangan data (DD) ; Date assessed: 15 July 2014

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya; Akuarium: Akuarium publik
FAO - Budidaya air: production; Perikanan: landings, profail spesis; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

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Sumber internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Marga, Jenis | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Budidaya air: production; Perikanan: landings, profail spesis; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genom, Nukleotida | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Akuarium publik | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: pergi, Cari | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9 - 20, mean 11.4 °C (based on 678 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00664 - 0.00867), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.9 (3.2 - 4.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 34 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.21-0.33; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=100,000).
Prior r = 0.51, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.76, Based on 34 stock assessments.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 90.1 [39.9, 230.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.43 [0.71, 2.71] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.9, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.452 [0.213, 0.927] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.8 [4.8, 53.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.42 [1.25, 23.04] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.63 [0.30, 1.59] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.